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The 44 Sounds (Phonemes) of English - Reading Rockets - cheque amount to words converter


The 44 Sounds (Phonemes) of English - Reading Rockets-cheque amount to words converter

For More Information on Phonemes Visit the Dyslexia Reading Well. www.dyslexia-reading-well.com
The 44 Sounds (Phonemes) of English
A phoneme is a speech sound. It's the smallest unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another.
Since sounds cannot be written, we use letters to represent or stand for the sounds. A grapheme is the
written representation (a letter or cluster of letters) of one sound. It is generally agreed that there are
approximately 44 sounds in English, with some variation dependent on accent and articulation. The 44 English
phonemes are represented by the 26 letters of the alphabet individually and in combination.
Phonics instruction involves teaching the relationship between sounds and the letters used to represent them.
There are hundreds of spelling alternatives that can be used to represent the 44 English phonemes. Only the
most common sound / letter relationships need to be taught explicitly.
The 44 English sounds can be divided into two major categories - consonants and vowels. A consonant
sound is one in which the air flow is cut off, either partially or completely, when the sound is produced. In
contrast, a vowel sound is one in which the air flow is unobstructed when the sound is made. The vowel
sounds are the music, or movement, of our language. The 44 phonemes represented below are in line with
the International Phonetic Alphabet.
Consonants
Sound Common Spelling alternatives
spelling
/b/ b bb
ball ribbon
/d/ d dd ed
dog add filled
/f/ f ff ph gh lf ft
fan cliff phone laugh calf often
/g/ g gg gh gu gue
grapes egg ghost guest catalogue
/h/ h wh
hat who
/j/ j ge g dge di gg
jellyfish cage giraffe edge soldier exaggerat
e
/k/ k c ch cc lk qu
kite cat christmas acclaim folk bouquet
q(u) ck X
queen back box
/l/ l ll
leaf spell
/m/ m mm mb mn lm
monkey summer climb autumn palm
/n/ n nn kn gn pn
nest funny knight gnat pneumonia
/ng/ ng n ngue
ring sink tongue
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/p/ p pp
pig happy
/r/ r rr wr rh
robot carrot wrong rhyme
/s/ s ss c sc ps st
sun mess circus science psychology listen
ce se
rice horse
/t/ t tt th ed
tap batter thomas tapped
/v/ v f ph ve
van of stephen five
/w/ w wh u o
web why quick choir
/y/ y i j
yo-yo opinion hallelujah
/z/ z zz s ss x ze
zebra buzz has scissors xylophone maze
se
cheese
Digraphs
Sound Common Spelling alternatives
spelling
/zh/ s si z
treasure division azure
/ch/ ch tch tu ti te
cheese watch future question righteous
/sh/ sh ce s ci si ch
shark ocean sure special tension machine
sci ti
conscience station
/th/ th
(unvoiced) thongs
/th/ th
(voiced) feather
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Short vowels
Sound Common Spelling alternatives
spelling
/a/ a ai
cat plaid
/e/ e ea u ie ai a
egg bread bury friend said many
eo ei ae ay
leopard heifer aesthetic say
/i/ i e o u ui y
igloo england women busy build hymn
ie
sieve
/o/ o a ho
orange swan honest
/u/ u o oo ou
mug monkey flood trouble
/oo/ oo u ou o
book bush could wolf
Long vowels
// ai a eigh aigh ay et
snail baby weigh straight hay croquet
ei au a-e ea ey
vein gauge cake break they
// ee e ea y ey oe
bee me seat lady key phoenix
ie i ei eo ay
brief ski receive people quay
// i y igh ie uy ye
spider fly night pie buy rye
ai is eigh i-e
aisle island height kite
// oa o-e o oe ow ough
boat bone open toe low though
eau oo ew
beau brooch sew
/?/ oo ew ue u-e oe ough
moon screw blue flute shoe through
ui o oeu ou
fruit who manoeuvre croup
/y//?/ u you ew iew yu eue
(2 sounds) uniform you few view yule queue
eau ieu eu
beauty adieu feud
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