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Atomic Structure & Periodicity –
AP Chemistry Name----------------------------------
Free response questions:
c = λ(, E = hc/λ , En = -2.18 x 10-18 J / n2, λ = h/mv, E= -13.6ev/n2
c = 2.998 x 108 m/s h = 6.626 x 10-34 J·s
1) An electron is moving from 3rd level to 2nd level.
a) Calculate the energy of an electron in the n=2 energy level of hydrogen.
b) Calculate the energy of an electron in the n=3 energy level.
c) What is the difference in energy of these two levels?
d) If a photon of light had this energy, what would its wavelength be?
2) An electron moves from the n=5 to the n=1 quantum level and emits a photon with
an energy of 2.093 x 10-18 J.
a) What is the wavelength of this energy?
3) An electron moves with a velocity of 2.5 x 108 m/s.
a) What is its wavelength? (The mass of an electron is 9.109 x 10-31 Kg.)
b) What is the frequency associated with this light?
4) a) Using Bohr's equation for the energy levels of the electron in the hydrogen
atom, determine the energy (ev) of an electron in the n = 4 level.
b)What is the energy in Joules unit?
c) What is the frequency associated with this electron?
d) What is the wavelength associated with this electron?
5) a) Calculate energy (J) associated with a transition from n = 2 to n = 6 in the Bohr
b) Is this transition results in emission or absorption?
c) What is the wavelength of the light in this transition?
6) The first ionization energies of 2nd period elements are given in the above diagram.
Briefly explain each of the following in terms of atomic structure.
a) In general, there is an increase in the first ionization energy from Li to Ne.
b) The first ionization energy of B is lower than that of Be.
c) The first ionization energy of O is lower than that of N.
d) Predict how the first ionization energy of Na compares to those of Li and of Ne. Explain.
7) The green pigment, Chlorophyll found in plants absorbs light with a wavelength of
a) Determine the frequency of the chlorophyll.
b) Calculate the energy of a photon of light with a wavelength of 660nm.
c) In the Balmer series of Hydrogen, one spectral line is associated with the transition
of an electron from the fourth energy level to the second energy level. Indicate whether
energy is absorbed or emitted as the electron moves from n=4 to n=2. Explain
d) Determine the wavelength of this spectral line.
e) Indicate whether the wavelength calculated in (2) is longer or shorter than the
wavelength associated with an electron moving from n=5 to n=2. Explain.
8) The values of the first three ionization energies for Magnesium and Argon are as follows.
| |I1 |I2 |I3 KJ/mol |
|Mg |735 |1443 |7730 |
|Ar |1525 |2665 |3945 |
a) Give the electronic configuration of Mg and Ar
b) In terms of these configurations, explain why the values of first and second
ionization energies of Mg are significantly lower than the values for Ar, where as the
third Ionization of Mg is much larger than the third Ionization of Ar.
c) If a sample of Ar in one container and a sample of Mg in another container are each
heated and chlorine is passed into each container. What compounds, if any will be
formed? Explain in terms of electric configurations given in part (a).
d) Element Q has the following first three ionization energies:
| |I1 |I2 |I3 KJ/mol |
|Q |496 |4568 |6920 |
What is the formula for the most likely compound element Q with chlorine? Explain
the choice of formula on the basis of the ionization energies.
9) Use principles of atomic structure and/or chemical bonding to answer each of the
a) The radius of the Ca atom is 0.197 nanometer; the radius of the Ca2+ ion is 0.099
nanometer. Account for this difference.
b) The lattice energy of CaO(s) is -3,460 kilojoules per mole; the lattice energy for
K2O(s) is -2,240 kilojoules per mole. Account for this difference.
Ionization energy kJ/m
K 419 3050
Ca 590 1140
c) Explain the difference between Ca and K in regard to
(i) their first ionization energies,
(ii) their second ionization energies.
d) The first ionization energy of Mg is 738 kilojoules per mole and that of Al is 578
kilojoules per mole. Account for this difference.
10) Use principles of atomic structure and/or chemical bonding to answer each of the
a) Write the ground state electron configuration for an arsenic atom, showing the number of electrons in each subshell
b) Give one permissible set of four quantum numbers for each of the outermost
electrons in a single As atom when it is in its ground state.
c) Is an isolated arsenic atom in the ground state paramagnetic or diamagnetic?
d) Explain how the electron configuration of the arsenic atom in the ground state is
consistent with the existence of the following known compounds: Na3As, AsCl3, and
11) Use the details of modern atomic theory to explain each of the following
a) Within a family such as the alkali metals, the ionic radius increases as the atomic
b) The radius of the chlorine atom is smaller than the radius of the chloride ion, Cl-.
(Radii : Cl atom = 0.99Å; Cl- ion = 1.81 Å)
c) The first ionization energy of aluminum is lower than the first ionization energy of
magnesium. (First ionization energies: 12Mg = 7.6 ev; 13Al = 6.0 ev)
d) For magnesium, the difference between the second and third ionization energies is much larger than the difference between the first and second ionization energies.
(Ionization energies for Mg: 1st = 7.6 ev; 2nd = 14 ev; 3rd = 80 ev)
12) Account for each of the following in terms of principles of atom structure, including
the number, properties, and arrangements of subatomic particles.
a) The second ionization energy of sodium is about three times greater than the
second ionization energy of magnesium.
b) The difference between the atomic radii of Na and K is relatively large compared to the difference between the atomic radii of Rb and Cs.
c) A sample of nickel chloride is attracted into a magnetic field, whereas a sample of solid zinc chloride is not.
d) Phosphorus forms the fluorides PF3 and PF5, whereas nitrogen forms only NF3.
13) Explain each of the following observations using principles of atomic structure
a) Potassium has a lower first-ionization energy than lithium.
b) The ionic radius of N3- is larger than that of O2-.
c) A calcium atom is larger than a zinc atom.
d) Boron has a lower first-ionization energy than beryllium.
14) a) The first ionization energy of Li is larger than that of Be
b) The second IE of K is greater than the second IE of Ca
16) Answer the following questions about the element selenium, Se (atomic number 34.)
a) Samples of natural selenium contain six stable isotopes. In terms of atomic structure, explain what these isotopes have in common, and how they differ.
b) Write the complete electron configuration (e.g. 1s2, 2s2, … etc.) for a selenium atom in the ground state. Indicate the number of unpaired electrons in the ground-state atom, and explain your reasoning.
c) In terms of atomic structure, explain why the first ionization energy of
(i) less than that of bromine (atomic number 35), and
(ii) greater than that of tellurium (atomic number 52).
a) The Ca2+ and Cl- ions are isoelectronic, but their radii are not the same. Which
ion has the larger radius? Explain.
b) Carbon and lead are in the same group of elements, but carbon is classified as a nonmetal and lead is classified as a metal.
c) Compounds containing Kr have been synthesized, but there are no known compounds that contain He.
d) The first ionization energy of Be is 900 kJ mol -1, but the first ionization energy of B is 800 kJ mol -1.
a) E2 = -5.45x10-19 J
b) E3= -2.42x10-19 J
c) ΔE = 3.03x 10-19 J
d) λ = hc/E = 6.6 x10-7 m
ΔΕ = 2.09x10-18
λ =hc /ΔΕ ’ 9.50x10-8 J
3) a) 2.909 x10-12 m
b) 1.361x10-19 J
c) 2.054x1014 hz
d) 1.461x10-6 m
a) 4.84x10-19 J
c) 4.107x10-6 m
a) Frequency ν ’ c/λ
b) E = h ν =
= 3.01 x 10-19 J
c) Energy will be emitted when electron moves from a higher energy 4th level to low energy 2nd level. The energy will be emitted in the form of a photon.
d) E = -2.18 x10-18 /n2
Change in E = -2.18 x10-18 ( 1/42 – 1/ 22 ) = 4.08 x 10-19 J
E = hc/ λ
= 4.60 x10-7m or 460 nm
What unit of measurement is smaller than a nanometer? Well, an ‘attometer’ (10^-18) is smaller than a nanometer, as is (0.5) nanometer. What use is a Yottametre? Do we need to measure anything that small or is it used only in theoretical science? Originally Answered: What use is a Yoctametre? Do we need to measure anything that small or is it used only in theoretical science?