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CHAPTER 2

Measurements in Chemistry

Test Bank

TYPE I MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

In each of the following multiple-choice questions, place the letter of the correct response in the blank at the left. There is only one correct response for each question.

2.1 b The “mathematical meaning” associated with the metric system prefixes centi, milli, and micro is, respectively,

a) 10–2, 10–4, and 10–6.

b) 10–2, 10–3, and 10–6.

c) 10–3, 10–6, and 10–9.

d) 10–3, 10–9, and 10–12.

2.2 c [Algorithmic]In which of the following sequences are the metric system prefixes listed in order of decreasing size?

a) mega, giga, kilo

b) nano, micro, milli

c) deca, deci, micro

d) hecto, kilo, deci

2.3 c [Algorithmic]To what decimal position should a measurement be recorded if the smallest markings on the measurement scale are tenths of a millimeter?

a) to the closest millimeter

b) to tenths of a millimeter

c) to hundredths of a millimeter

d) to thousandths of a millimeter

2.4 d [Algorithmic]In which one of the following measured numbers are all of the zeros significant?

a) 0.0307

b) 3,700,000

c) 0.000120

d) 1.023700

2.5 d [Algorithmic]In which of the following pairs of numbers does each member of the pair contain the same number of significant figures?

a) 11.0 and 11.00

b) 600.0 and 60

c) 0.05700 and 0.0570

d) 0.000066 and 660,000

2.6 c [Algorithmic]In which of the following cases is the given number correctly rounded to three significant figures?

a) 435,000 becomes 435

b) 0.01135 becomes 0.0113

c) 32.57 becomes 32.6

d) 35.113 becomes 35,000

2.7 c [Algorithmic]Which of the following would involve an exact number?

a) the length of a swimming pool

b) the mass of a bag of potato chips

c) the number of inches in a foot

d) the surface area of a living room rug

2.8 d [Algorithmic]The number 105.26 expressed in scientific notation becomes

a) 1.05 x 10–2

b) 1.0526 x 10–2

c) 1.05 x 102

d) 1.0526 x 102

2.9 b [Algorithmic]The number 0.00300 expressed in scientific notation becomes

a) 3 x 10–3

b) 3.00 x 10–3

c) 3 x 103

d) 3.00 x 103

2.10 c [Algorithmic]The calculator answer obtained from multiplying the measurements 62.32 and 7.00 is 436.24. This answer

a) is correct as written.

b) should be rounded to 436.2.

c) should be rounded to 436.

d) should be rounded to 440.

2.11 b [Algorithmic]The correct answer obtained from adding the measurements 8.1, 2.16 and 3.123 contains

a) 2 significant figures.

b) 3 significant figures.

c) 4 significant figures.

d) 5 significant figures.

2.12 b [Algorithmic]The correct answer obtained by dividing the measurement (9.00 x 10–3) by the measurement (3.0 x 103) is

a) 3.00 x 10–6.

b) 3.0 x 10–6.

c) 3 x 10–6.

d) 3.0 x 100.

2.13 b [Algorithmic]According to dimensional analysis, which of the following is the correct set-up for the problem “How many milligrams are there in 67 kilograms?”

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2.14 a [Algorithmic]How many conversion factors can be derived from the equality 24 hours = 1 day?

a) two

b) three

c) four

d) an unlimited number

2.15 c The density of an object is the ratio of its

a) length to volume.

b) mass to height.

c) mass to volume.

d) length to mass.

2.16 c [Algorithmic]If object A weighs 8 grams and has a volume of 4 mL and object B weighs 12 g and has a volume of 3 mL,

a) B is less dense than A.

b) A and B have equal densities.

c) B is twice as dense as A.

d) B is four times as dense as A.

2.17 b [Algorithmic]What is the mass, in grams, of 30.0 mL of a liquid if its density is 0.60 g/mL?

a) 5.0 g

b) 18 g

c) 5 g

d) 180 g

2.18 d Which of the following comparisons of the size of a degree on the major temperature scales is correct?

a) A Kelvin degree is larger than a Celsius degree.

b) A Fahrenheit degree and a Celsius degree are equal in size.

c) A Fahrenheit degree is larger than a Kelvin degree.

d) A Celsius degree and a Kelvin degree are equal in size.

2.19 c Which of the following would be a correct set of units for specific heat?

a) J/g

b) J/ΕC

c) J/g ΕC

d) J ΕC/g

2.20 c [Algorithmic]How many joules of heat are required to raise the temperature of a 48.0 g Al bar from 25.0Ε C to 55.0Ε C? The specific heat of Al is 0.908 J/g ΕC.

a) 43.6 J

b) 1090 J

c) 1310 J

d) 240 J

TYPE II MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

In each of the following multiple-choice questions, place the letter of the correct response in the blank at the left. There may be more than one correct response for a question (choice d) or no correct response for a question (choice e).

2.21 d In which of the following pairings of metric system prefix and power of ten is the pairing incorrect?

a) kilo- and 10–3

b) micro- and 10–6

c) deci- and 101

d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.22 e In which of the following pairs of units is the first listed unit 1000 times larger than the second?

a) milligram and nanogram

b) liter and centiliter

c) kilometer and megameter

d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.23 c In which of the following sequences of measured numbers do all members of the sequence contain three significant figures?

a) 3.03 and 3.30 and 0.033

b) 78,000 and 0.00780 and 780

c) 30.0 and 0.300 and 30,100

d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.24 b Which of the following statements concerning the measured number 0.3030 is correct?

a) Only one of the zeros in the number is significant.

b) Rounded off to 2 significant figures the number becomes 0.30.

c) Expressed in scientific notation the number becomes 3.03 x 10–1.

d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.25 a Which of the following mathematical expressions is correctly evaluated?

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d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.26 d Which of the following numbers contains three significant figures and has a magnitude of less than one?

a) 3.30 x 105

b) 3.00 x 10–3

c) 3.20 x 10–4

d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.27 b When expressed in scientific notation, the numbers 3200 and 3200.0 become, respectively,

a) 3.2 x 103 and 3.200 x 103

b) 3.2 x 103 and 3.2000 x 103

c) 3.200 x 103 and 3.2000 x 103

d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.28 b Which of the following conversion factors would limit a calculation to three significant figures?

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d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.29 a Which of the following conversion factors, when used as written, would decrease unit size?

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d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.30 d Density can be used as a conversion factor to convert from

a) mass to volume.

b) volume to mass.

c) metric unit mass to English unit mass.

d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.31 c The density of table sugar is 1.59 g/mL. It is true that

a) 2.00 g of table sugar occupies a volume of 1.17 mL.

b) 3.00 g of table sugar occupies a volume of 1.97 mL.

c) 5.00 g of table sugar occupies a volume of 3.14 mL.

d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.32 d Which of the following statements concerning the three major temperature scales is correct?

a) Kelvin temperatures are always positive.

b) The equation for converting from Celsius to Kelvin involves the number 273.

c) The freezing point of water has a lower numerical value on the Kelvin scale than on the Fahrenheit scale.

d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.33 a In which of the following pairs of temperature readings are the two members of the pair equivalent to each other?

a) 32ΕF and 273 K

b) 0ΕC and 373 K

c) 0ΕC and 40ΕF

d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.34 e The heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 10.0 g of metal by 10.0ΕC would exceed 25 calories for which of the following metals?

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d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

2.35 b Which of the following statements concerning specific heat is correct?

a) Specific heat can be measured only when a substance is in the solid state.

b) Under similar conditions, substances with low specific heats increase in temperature more when heated than do substances with high specific heats.

c) A correct set of units for specific heat is cal/ΕC.

d) more than one correct response

e) no correct response

MULTIPLE-CHOICE FORMAT TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS

In each of the following multiple-choice questions, characterize EACH of the three given statements as being TRUE or FALSE and then indicate the collective true-false status of the statements using the choices a) All three statements are true.

b) Two of the three statements are true.

c) Only one of the statements is true.

d) None of the statements is true.

2.36 c - TFF Statements:

(1) The meaning of a metric system prefix is independent of the base unit it modifies.

(2) “Trailing zeros” at the end of a measured numbered are never significant.

(3) The answer to the problem 105/10-3 is 102.

a) All three statements are true.

b) Two of the three statements are true.

c) Only one of the statements is true.

d) None of the statements is true.

2.37 b - TTF Statements:

(1) In outer space, an astronaut may be weightless but never massless.

(2) The metric system prefixes milli and micro differ in mathematical meaning by a factor of 1000.

(3) The addition of 273 to a Fahrenheit temperature reading will convert it to a Kelvin temperature reading.

a) All three statements are true.

b) Two of the three statements are true.

c) Only one of the statements is true.

d) None of the statements is true.

2.38 b - FTT Statements:

(1) The measured number 2.410 x 10-3 contains three significant figures.

(2) The specific heat of water is higher than that of most other substances.

(3) The equation 1 kg = 106 mg is a correct mathematical statement.

a) All three statements are true.

b) Two of the three statements are true.

c) Only one of the statements is true.

d) None of the statements is true.

2.39 d - FFF Statements:

(1) The answer to the addition problem 3.21 + 32 + 3.22 should have an uncertainty of hundredths.

(2) The measurement 653,899, when rounded to five significant figures, becomes 65,390.

(3) The higher the specific heat of a substance, the more its temperature will change when it absorbs a given amount of heat.

a) All three statements are true.

b) Two of the three statements are true.

c) Only one of the statements is true.

d) None of the statements is true.

2.40 b - TTF Statements:

(1) The conversion factor 103 m/1 km contains an unlimited number of significant figures.

(2) Density may be used as a conversion factor to convert from mass to volume.

(3) The equation 2.33 lb = 625 g is a correct mathematical statement.

a) All three statements are true.

b) Two of the three statements are true.

c) Only one of the statements is true.

d) None of the statements is true.

2.41 b - TTF Statements:

(1) A deciliter is equal to 100 milliliters.

(2) The Kelvin temperature scale is closely related mathematically to the Celsius temperature scale.

(3) Measurements cannot be exact because two estimated digits are always recorded as part of any measurement.

a) All three statements are true.

b) Two of the three statements are true.

c) Only one of the statements is true.

d) None of the statements is true.

2.42 b - TTF Statements:

(1) The answer to the calculation 12.00 x (6.00 x 1023) should contain three significant figures.

(2) A meter is slightly larger than a yard, and a liter is slightly larger than a quart.

(3) The numbers 3.30 x 10-1 and 3.30 x 101 both have a magnitude of less than 1.

a) All three statements are true.

b) Two of the three statements are true.

c) Only one of the statements is true.

d) None of the statements is true.

2.43 b - FTT Statements:

(1) The size of the degree is the same on the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales.

(2) The exact number 12 contains more significant figures than the measured number 12.3314.

(3) The answer to the calculation 8.45 + 10.40 should contain four significant figures.

a) All three statements are true.

b) Two of the three statements are true.

c) Only one of the statements is true.

d) None of the statements is true.

2.44 c - TFF Statements:

(1) The measured numbers 244,000 and 0.000244 contain the same number of significant figures.

(2) One cubic centimeter is equal to ten milliliters.

(3) The conversion factor 1 in./2.54 cm, when used as written, would decrease unit size.

a) All three statements are true.

b) Two of the three statements are true.

c) Only one of the statements is true.

d) None of the statements is true.

2.45 a - TTT Statements:

(1) Normal human body temperature has an average value of 98.2oF.

(2) A rapid fall in human body temperature of 2oF to 3oF produces “shivering.”

(3) Fat cells, unlike most other human body cells and fluids, are less dense than water.

a) All three statements are true.

b) Two of the three statements are true.

c) Only one of the statements is true.

d) None of the statements is true.

MATCHING QUESTIONS

For each of the measured numbers on the left, determine the number of significant figures present. Specify your answers using the response list on the right. Responses on the right may be used more than once or need not be used at all.

|2.46 b 0.000320 | |a) one |

| | |b) three |

|2.47 c 0.30003 | |c) five |

| | |d) seven |

|2.48 c 2,300,100 | | |

| | | |

|2.49 b 93,100,000 | | |

| | | |

|2.50 d 3215.000 | | |

For each of the calculator-completed calculations on the left, determine the correct number of significant figures that the answer should have using the response list on the right. Responses on the right may be used more than once or need not be used at all.

|2.51 b |4.35 x 2.17 = 9.4395 |a) two |

| | |b) three |

|2.52 d |2.311 + 23.420 = 25.731 |c) four |

| | |d) five |

|2.53 b |273.2 – 33 = 240.2 | |

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|2.54 a___ | | |

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| | | |

|2.55 a___ | | |

| | | |

For each of the characterizations on the left, select the correct pair of numbers from the response list on the right. Responses on the right may be used more than once or need not be used at all.

|2.56 d The number of significant figures is the same in both numbers. | |a) 0.31300 and 0.3130 |

| | |b) 233,200 and 17,100 |

|2.57 c All zeros are significant in both numbers. | |c) 37.210 and 220.3 |

| | |d) 0.00010 and 110,000 |

|2.58 b The uncertainty is the same in both numbers. | | |

| | | |

|2.59 b The uncertainty is greater than 0.1 in both numbers. | | |

| | | |

|2.60 a Scientific notation for both numbers involves the same power of | | |

|ten. | | |

For each of the temperature scale comparisons on the left, select the correct numerical temperature value from the response list on the right. Responses on the right may be used more than once or need not be used at all.

|2.61 a Celsius equivalent of 273 K | |a) 0 |

| | |b) 32 |

|2.62 b Fahrenheit equivalent of 0ΕC | |c) 253 |

| | |d) 273 |

|2.63 c Kelvin equivalent of –20ΕC | | |

| | | |

|2.64 a Celsius equivalent of 32ΕF | | |

| | | |

|2.65 b Fahrenheit equivalent of 273 K | | |

Select the correct numerical answer for each of the calculations on the left using the response list on the right. Responses on the right may be used more than once or need not be used at all.

|2.66 b Density (in g/mL) when m = 12.0 g and V = 3.0 mL | |a) 1.0 |

| | |b) 4.0 |

|2.67 a Volume (in mL) when m = 2.0 g and d = 2.0 g/mL | |c) 8.0 |

| | |d) 12.0 |

|2.68 b Mass (in g) when V = 2.0 mL and d = 2.0 g/mL | | |

| | | |

|2.69 a Specific heat (in cal/gΕC) when heat = 20.0 cal, m = 10.0 g and )T = 2.0ΕC | | |

| | | |

|2.70 b Mass (in g) when heat = 80.0 cal, sp. ht. = 0.50 cal/gΕC and | | |

|)T = 40ΕC | | |

How do you convert eV to nm? How do you convert eV to NM? 1 eV = 0.00016 N-m. How do you convert from nm to cm? To convert a nanometer measurement to a centimeter measurement, divide the length by the conversion ratio. The length in centimeters is equal to the nanometers divided by .