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ITNW 1425 – Fundamentals of Networking CCNA Discovery 1 Del Mar College

5.1
Complete Packet Tracer Activity 5.1.1

1. An IP address is simply a series of binary bits (ones and zeros). How many binary bits are used?

32

2. The logical 32-bit IP address is hierarchical and is made up of two parts. These two parts are:

a. network portion
b. host portion

3. Which portion of an IP address identifies a specific host on a network?

Host portion

4. If your computer has the IP address of 172.14.35.77 and a default 255.255.0.0 subnet mask, which IP addresses listed below will it be able to communicate with? Check all that apply.

__X__ 172.14.35.78
_____ 172.16.35.76
_____ 192.168.10.15
__X__ 172.14.14.25
_____ 172.15.100.10

5. Draw a line between the PC’s and the correct network they can communicate with.
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Complete Lab Activity 5.1.4
5.2

6. Expand on the following address classes. (ie. How their octets are divided, what the default subnet mask is, and where that class of address is commonly used.)

a. Class A –
Class A addresses have only one octet to represent the network portion and three to represent the hosts. The default subnet mask is 8 bits (255.0.0.0). These addresses are typically assigned to large organizations.

b. Class B –
Class B addresses have two octets to represent the network portion and two for the hosts. The default subnet mask is 16 bits (255.255.0.0). These addresses are typically used for medium-sized networks.

c. Class C –
Class C addresses have three octets for the network portion and one for the hosts. The default subnet mask is 24 bits (255.255.255.0). Class C addresses are usually assigned to small networks.

7. What is the first octet range of all five address classes?

Class A – 1-127
Class B – 128-191
Class C – 192-223

Class D – 224-239 (multicasting)
Class E – 240-255 (experimental)

8. All hosts that connect directly to the Internet require a unique public IP address. Explain in detail why this is a problem, and give one possible solution.

Because of the finite number of 32-bit addresses available, there is a risk of running out of IP addresses. One solution to this problem was to reserve some private addresses for use exclusively inside an organization. This allows hosts within an organization to communicate with one another without the need of a unique public IP address.

9. How many private host addresses are available for each class of address?

a. Class A – allows for over 16 million private addresses.
b. Class B – allows for over 65,000 addresses.
c. Class C –allows up to 254 hosts.

10. How many networks are available for each class of private addresses?

a. Class A – 1
b. Class B – 16
c. Class C – 256

11. List the private address network ranges for each class of address.

a. Class A – 10.X.X.X
b. Class B – 172.16.X.X – 172.31.X.X
c. Class C –192.168.X.X

* APIPA – 169.254.X.X

The use of private addresses can provide a measure of security since they are only visible on the local network, and outsiders cannot gain direct access to the private IP addresses.

13. What is the address range 127.0.0.0 used for?

There are also private addresses that can be used for the diagnostic testing of devices. This type of private address is known as a loopback address. The class A, 127.0.0.0 network, is reserved for loopback addresses.

14. Where is a unicast packet destined to go?

A specific host

15. For a unicast packet to be sent and received, what must be included?

A destination IP address must be in the IP packet header. A corresponding destination MAC address must also be present in the Ethernet frame header. The IP address and MAC address combine to deliver data to one specific destination host.

a. 192.168.1.0 - 192.168.1.255
b. 172.16.0.0 - 172.16.255.255
c. 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
d. 210.25.77.0 - 210.25.77.255
e. 145.188.0.0 - 145.188.255.255

01-00-5E

5.3

Static –
With a static assignment, the network administrator must manually configure the network information for a host. At a minimum, this includes the host IP address, subnet mask and default gateway.

Static addresses have some advantages. For instance, they are useful for printers, servers and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients on the network. If hosts normally access a server at a particular IP address, it would not be good if that address changed.

Static assignment of addressing information can provide increased control of network resources.

It can be time consuming to enter the information on each host. When entering IP addresses statically, the host only performs basic error checks on the IP address. Therefore, errors are more likely to occur.

When using static IP addressing, it is important to maintain an accurate list of which IP addresses are assigned to which devices. Additionally, these are permanent addresses and are not normally reused.

Dynamic –
On local networks it is often the case that the user population changes frequently. New users arrive with laptops and need a connection. Others have new workstations that need to be connected. Rather than have the network administrator assign IP addresses for each workstation, it is easier to have IP addresses assigned automatically. This is done using a protocol known as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

DHCP is generally the preferred method of assigning IP addresses to hosts on large networks since it reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors.

Another benefit of DHCP is that an address is not permanently assigned to a host but is only leased for a period of time. If the host is powered down or taken off the network, the address is returned to the pool for reuse. This is especially helpful with mobile users that come and go on a network.

19. What is the purpose of a DHCP server?

The DHCP server assigns an IP address when you boot your computer.

20. Explain in detail how a computer uses a DHCP server to get its IP address?

A client that needs an IP address will send a DHCP Discover message which is a broadcast with a destination IP address of 255.255.255.255 (32 ones) and a destination MAC address of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF (48 ones). All hosts on the network will receive this broadcast DHCP frame, but only a DHCP server will reply. The server will respond with a DHCP Offer, suggesting an IP address for the client. The host then sends a DHCP Request to that server asking to use the suggested IP address. The server responds with a DHCP Acknowledgment.

Complete Packet Tracer Activity 5.3.3
5.4

21. What is each interface on a router connected to?

a separate network

22. List and explain the three methods hosts can be connected to an ISP.

a. Direct Connection -

Some customers have just a single computer with a direct connection from the ISP through a modem. In this case, the public address from the ISP DHCP server is assigned to the single host.

b. Connection Through an Integrated Router -

When there is more than one host that needs access to the Internet, the ISP modem can be attached directly to an integrated router instead of directly to a single computer. This enables the creation of a home or small business network. The integrated router receives the public address from the ISP. Internal hosts receive private addresses from the integrated router.

c. Connection Through a Gateway Device -

Gateway devices combine an integrated router and a modem in one unit, and connect directly to the ISP service. As with integrated routers, the gateway device receives a public address from the ISP and internal PCs will receive private addresses from the gateway device.

23. Explain what NAT is and does.

The integrated router receives a public address from the ISP, which allows it to send and receive packets on the Internet. It, in turn, provides private addresses to local network clients. Since private addresses are not allowed on the Internet, a process is needed for translating private addresses into unique public addresses to allow local clients to communicate on the Internet.

The process used to convert private addresses to Internet-routable addresses is called Network Address Translation (NAT). With NAT, a private (local) source IP address is translated to a public (global) address. The process is reversed for incoming packets. The integrated router is able to translate many internal IP addresses to the same public address, by using NAT.

Complete Packet Tracer Activity 5.4.3

How to convert real number to binary format? Binary equivalent of a real number 1. Convert the integer part by repeated division by 2 (or some other algorithm) 2. Convert the fraction part by repeated multiplication by 2 3. Join these two parts together to form a binary fixed point number 4. Add a zero exponent to get the number into binary floating point form 5.