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# Exercises: - SIUE - create a youtube account private

Exercises:

1. Write a program that allows students to schedule appointments at either 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 o’clock p. m. Use an array of six strings to store the names for the time slots. Write a loop that iterates as long as the array has a free space. Within a try block, allow the user to enter a time and a name. If the time is free, put the name in the array. If the time is not free, throw a TimeInUseException. If the time is not valid, throw an InvalidTimeException. Use a catch block for each different kind of exception.

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in TimeInUseException.java, InvalidTimeException.java, and Scheduler.java. |

2. Write a program that allows the user to compute the remainder after the division of two integer values. The remainder of x / y is x % y. Catch any exception thrown and allow the user to enter new values.

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in ModProgram.java. |

3. Write an exception class that is appropriate for indicating that a time entered by a user is not valid. The time will be in the format hour:minute followed by “am” or “pm.”

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in InvalidTimeFormatException.java. |

4. Derive exception classes from the class you wrote in the previous exercise. Each new class should indicate a specific kind of error. For example, InvalidHourException could be used to indicate that the value entered for hour was not an integer in the range 1 to 12.

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in InvalidHourException.java, InvalidMinuteException.java, InvalueFormattingException.java. |

5. Write a class TimeOfDay that uses the exception classes defined in the previous exercise. Give it a method setTimeTo(timeString) that changes the time if timeString corresponds to a valid time of day. If not, it should throw an exception of the appropriate type.

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in TimeOfDay.java. |

6. Write code that reads a string from the keyboard and uses it to set the variable myTime of type TimeOfDay from the previous exercise. Use try-catch blocks to guarantee that myTime is set to a valid time.

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in TimeProgram.java. |

7. Create a class SongCard that represents a gift card for the purchase of songs online.
It should have the following private attributes:
• songs—the number of songs on the card
• activated—true if the card has been activated
and the following methods:
• SongCard(n)—a constructor for a card with n songs.
• activate()—activates the gift card. Throws an exception if the card has already been activated.
• buyASong()—records the purchase of one song by decreasing the number of songs left for purchase using this card. Throws an exception if the gift card is either completely used or not active.
• songsRemaining()—returns the number of songs that can be purchased using the gift card.

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in SongCard.java, CardNotActivatedException.java,CardEmptyException.java. |

8. Create a class Rational that represents a rational number. It should have private attributes for
• The numerator (an integer)
• The denominator (an integer)
and the following methods:
• Rational(numerator, denominator)—a constructor for a rational number.
• Accessor methods getNumerator and getDenominator and mutator methods setNumerator and setDenominator for the numerator and the denominator. You should use an exception to guarantee that the denominator is never zero.

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in Rational.java. |

9. Revise the class Rational described in the previous exercise to use an assertion instead of an exception to guarantee that the denominator is never zero.

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in RationalWithAssert.java. |

10. Suppose that you are going to create an object used to count the number of people in a room. We know that the number of people in the room can never be negative.
Create a RoomCounter class having three public methods:
• removePerson—removes one person from the room
• getCount —returns the number of people in the room
If removePerson would make the number of people less than zero, throw a NegativeCounterException.

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in RoomCounter.java. |

11. Revise the class RoomCounter described in the previous exercise to use an assertion instead of an exception to prevent the number of people in the room from becoming negative.

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in RoomCounterWithAssert.java. |

12. Show the modifications needed to add exponentiation to the class Calculator in Listing 9.12. Use ^ to indicate the exponentiation operator and the method Math.pow to perform the computation.

|Solution: |
| |
|case '^': // THIS IS NEW CODE |
|break; |

13. Write a class LapTimer that can be used to time the laps in a race. The class should have the following private attributes:
• running—a boolean indication of whether the timer is running
• startTime—the time when the timer started
• lapStart—the timer’s value when the current lap started
• lapTime—the elapsed time for the last lap
• totalTime—the total time from the start of the race through the last completed lap
• lapsCompleted—the number of laps completed so far
• lapsInRace—the number of laps in the race
The class should have the following methods:
• LapTimer(n)—a constructor for a race having n laps.
• start —starts the timer. Throws an exception if the race has already started.
• markLap—marks the end of the current lap and the start of a new lap. Throws an exception if the race is finished.
• getLapTime—returns the time of the last lap. Throws an exception if the first lap has not yet been completed.
• getTotalTime—returns the total time from the start of the race through the last completed lap. Throws an exception if the first lap has not yet been completed.
• getLapsRemaining—returns the number of laps yet to be completed, including the current one.

Express all times in seconds.
To get the current time in milliseconds from some baseline date, invoke
Calendar.getInstance().getTimeInMillis() This invocation returns a primitive value of type long. By taking the difference between the returned values of two invocations at two different times, you will know the elapsed time in milliseconds between the invocations. Note that the class Calendar is in the package java.util.

|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in TimerException.java, LapTimer.java. |

Projects:

1. Use the exception class MessageTooLongException of Self-Test Question 16 in a program that asks the user to enter a line of text having no more than 20 characters. If the user enters an acceptable number of characters, the program should display the message, “You entered x characters, which is an acceptable length” (with the letter x replaced by the actual number of characters). Otherwise, a MessageTooLongException
should be thrown and caught. In either case, the program should repeatedly ask whether the user wants to enter another line or quit the program.

|Notes: |
| |
|This project has exactly the same organization as ExceptionDemo, Listing 9.2 |
|References: |
| |
|Listing 9.2, Self-Test Question 16 |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in MessageTooLongException.java and MessageTooLongExceptionDemo.java. |

2. Write a program that converts a time from 24-hour notation to 12-hour notation. The following is a sample interaction between the user and the program:

Enter time in 24-hour notation:
13:07
That is the same as
1:07 PM
Again? (y/n)
y

Enter time in 24-hour notation:
10:15
That is the same as
10:15 AM
Again? (y/n)
y

Enter time in 24-hour notation:
10:65
There is no such time as 10:65
Try Again:
Enter time in 24-hour notation:
16:05
That is the same as
4:05 PM
Again? (y/n)
n
End of program

Define an exception class called TimeFormatException. If the user enters an illegal time, like 10:65, or even gibberish, like 8&*68, your program should throw and handle a TimeFormatException.

|Notes: |
| |
|It is helpful to follow the author's suggestion to get the normal case working first, and then add exception handling. There |
|are a number of issues to work out to do the transformation from 24-hour to 12-hour format. The first problem is to decide |
|how to parse the input with a colon separating the hours and minutes integers. All of the methods introduced so far parse |
|text that is delimited with spaces. The solution used here is to read the input one character at a time and use a switch |
|structure to convert the hours and minutes to integers. But this leads to another problem, how to deal with variations on the|
|input format. For example, the number of hours could have zero, one or two digits, e.g. :10, 0:10, or 00:10 for ten minutes |
|after midnight. To make the solution easier, a requirement is imposed on the input: It must be in xx.xx format, i.e. it must |
|have two digits, a semicolon, and then another two digits. Any other format is flagged as a formatting error. So leading |
|zeros are required for times earlier than 10:00. Another problem is obtaining and saving the input so it can be reprinted in |
|the error message. The solution resolves this by reading in five characters individually (note the first one is with |
|readNonwhiteChar) and any remaining characters as a string. The next steps check each character to see if they are valid: |
|only 0, 1 or 2 are allowed for the first character, etc. Additional processing of legitimate times is needed to subtract 12 |
|from hours that are over 12, print "noon" for 12:00, change "AM" to "PM" for hours greater than 11, and conditionally print a |
|leading zero for minutes that are less than ten. |
|After the code to parse and process the input is done, the easiest way to add exception handling is to modify the code in the |
|DivideByZeroException.java and DivideByZeroExceptionDemo.java files. Just change the names in the exception definition file, |
|replace the body of the demo file with the code developed above, and add the code in catch to get the correct printout. |
|This is an excellent example to work on test case development since there are a number of situations that need special |
|attention in the code. Here are some good examples: |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
|Insufficient number of characters in hh field - should cause an exception. |
|00:00 - Should print "0:00 AM". |
|12:00 - Should print "12:00 noon". |
|12:01 - Should print "12:01 PM". |
|11:59 - Should print "11:59 AM". |
|23:59 - Should print "11:59 PM". |
|24:00 - Should cause an exception. |
|11:60 - Should cause an exception. |
|Combinations with all correct values except in one of the five positions (for example, a1:15, 1a:15, 11a15, 11:a5, and 11:1a) |
|- Should cause an exception. |
|A completely wrong input (for example f*!bc%) – Should cause and exception. |
|A correct input with additional characters (for example 11:15%xyz) – Should cause an exception. |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in TimeFormatException.java and TimeFormatExceptionDemo.java. |

3. Write a program that uses the class Calculator in Listing 9.12 to create a more powerful calculator. This calculator will allow you to save one result in memory and call the result back. The commands the calculator takes are
• e for end
• c for clear; sets result to zero
• m for save in memory; sets memory equal to result
• r for recall memory; displays the value of memory but does not change result. You should define a derived class of the class Calculator that has one more instance variable for the memory, a new main method that runs the improved calculator, a redefinition of the method handleUnknownOpException, and anything else new or redefined that you need. A sample interaction with the user is shown next. Your program need not produce identical output, but it should be similar and just as clear or even clearer.
Calculator on:
result = 0.0
+ 4
result + 4.0 = 4.0
updated result = 4.0
/ 2
result / 2.0 = 2.0
updated result = 2.0
m
result saved in memory
c
result = 0.0
+ 99
result + 99.0 = 99.0
updated result = 99.0
/ 3
result / 3.0 = 33.0
updated result = 33.0
r
recalled memory value = 2.0
result = 33.0
+ 2
result + 2.0 = 35.0
updated result = 35.0
e
End of program

|Notes: |
| |
|Create a new class that extends Calculator, add an instance variable for memory, and add the code to implement the new |
|features. Note that you should use the setResult() and resultValue()methods to access the instance variable result from the |
|parent class. There should be a space between the operator and the number. The program does not catch the exceptions that |
|occur when a non-numeric value is entered instead of a number. |
|References: |
| |
|Listing 9.5, Listing 9.10, Listing 9.12 |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in Calculator.java, ImprovedCalculator.java, DivideByZeroException.java, and UnknownOpException.java. |

4. Write a program that converts dates from numerical month–day format to alphabetic month–day format. For example, input of 1/31 or 01/31 would produce January 31 as output. The dialogue with the user should be similar to that shown in Programming Project 2. You should define two exception classes, one called MonthException and another called DayException. If the user enters anything other than a legal month number (integers from 1 to 12), your program should throw and catch a MonthException. Similarly, if the user enters anything other than a valid day number (integers from 1 to either 29, 30, or 31, depending on the month), your program should throw and catch a DayException. To keep things simple, assume that February always has 28 days.

|Notes: |
| |
|The big problem that influences the design of this project is that the numbers entered are ASCII strings and not integers. |
|The processing that needs to be done (check for valid month numbers, check for valid day numbers, and translate from month |
|numbers to month names) is much easier if the month and day are integers, so that is the approach taken in the solution shown |
|here. The first problem is to parse the input to get the one or two ASCII character digits for each of the data items, month |
|and day. The program uses String methods to find the position of the slash character, /, that separates the two, then usees |
|it to obtain the one or two characters before it for the month, and the one or two characters after it for the day. Next it |
|converts the one- or two-character digits to the decimal integers they represent. A relatively “clean” solution is to write a|
|helper method that converts one ASCII digit-character into its integer value, then use the helper method to convert the one- |
|or two-character month and day values to integers. The code to convert an ASCII integer character to a decimal integer value |
|is written as a switch structure. The month must be converted before day because it is used to determine if the day value is |
|valid. Once the month input is converted to a number it is easy to do the remaining processing. The month can be easily |
|checked for validity (only 1 through 12 are valid values), used as an index into a String array to get the month’s name, and |
|used to check the day number for validity (e.g. if the month number is 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, or 12, the day number must be in the|
|range 1 – 31). The switch structure is also a very good choice for the day-check since it is very compact and readable. |
|Organizing the steps to keep month processing separate from day processing allows the try/catch blocks for the two exceptions |
|to be cleanly and clearly separated. So the solution here is organized as follows: |
|Parse the input string to get the month part and the day part. |
|Convert the month part to an integer, if possible. |
|Check the month for validity: convert day number only if month is valid. It is in this block that a MonthException is thrown |
|for any invalid input for month or if the slash character that separates month and day is missing. Note that any 3-character |
|number for day or month is considered invalid. So, while 01/01 is accepted and converted to January 1, 001/01 and 01/001 are |
|flagged as invalid. |
|If month is a valid number, convert day to its integer value and check for validity. It is here that a DayException is thrown|
|for any invalid day input. |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in MonthException.java, DayException.java, and DateFormatConverter.java. |

5. Modify the driver program from Programming Project 6 in Chapter 8 to use three exception classes called CylinderException, LoadException, and TowingException. The number of cylinders must be an integer from 1 to 12, the load capacity must be a number from 1 to 10 (possibly with a fractional part), and the towing capacity must be a number from 1 to 20 (possibly with a fractional part). Anything other than numbers in these ranges should cause your program to throw and catch the appropriate exception. You also need to define the classes CylinderException, LoadException, and TowingException.

|Notes: |
| |
|In this project, the driver program should be modified for interactive entry of cylinders, load and towing capacity so the |
|exception code can be exercised. Also, each of the exception classes allow for three different ways to call the exception, |
|with no parameters to get the default message, with a String to display a custom message, or with a data value to display the |
|erroneous input in the error message. |
|References: |
| |
|Listing 8.4, Project 8.6 |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in CylinderException.java, LoadException.java, TowingException.java and TruckExceptionDemo.java. Uses |
|Person.java, Truck.java, and Vehicle.java. |

6. Define an exception class called DimensionException to use in the driver program from Programming Project 7 in Chapter 8. Modify that driver program to throw and catch a DimensionException if the user enters something less than or equal to zero for a dimension.

|Notes: |
| |
|This project is fairly simple. The DimensionException class is written to accept a String and an integer so the message can |
|be more helpful (it can display which dimension is invalid and its value). The MoreGraphicsDemo program from Chapter 8 |
|Programming Project 7 is modified to create the version using DimensionException and to be interactive so the exception code |
|can be exercised. |
|References: |
| |
|Project 8.7, Listing 8.15 |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in DimensionException.java, DimensionExceptionDemo.java, SquarePr7.java, Rectangle.java, and RightTriangle.java.|
|Uses ShapeBase.java. |

7. Write a program to enter employee data, including social security number and salary, into an array. The maximum number of employees is 100, but your program should also work for any number of employees less than 100. Your program should use two exception classes, one called SSNLengthException for when the social security number entered—without dashes or spaces—is not exactly nine characters and the other called SSNCharacterException for when any character in the social security number is not a digit. When an exception is thrown, the user should be reminded of what she or he entered, told why it is inappropriate, and asked to reenter the data. After all data has been entered, your program should display the records for all employees, with an annotation stating whether the employee’s salary is above or below average. You will also need to define the classes Employee, SSNLengthException, and SSNCharacterException. Derive the class Employee from the class Person in Listing 8.4 of Chapter 8. Among other things, the class Employee should have input and output methods, as well as constructors, accessor methods, and mutator methods. Every Employee object should record the employee’s name, salary, and social security number, as well as any other data you need or think is appropriate.

|Notes: |
| |
|It may be useful to review arrays of objects before doing this project. For example, even after creating the array of |
|EmployeeCh8 objects, it is necessary to create each element with a new statement inside the loop that reads in the employee’s |
|information. Note that it is useful to use the same variable for the array subscript and the employee’s number, except that |
|the subscript begins with 0 and the employee number begins with 1. So, whenever the employee number needs to be displayed, |
|simply use the expression (subscript variable + 1). |
|References: |
| |
|Listing 8.4, Project 8.1 |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in EmployeeCh9.java, EmployeeCh9Demo.java, SSNLengthException.java, and SSNCharacterException.java. Uses |
|Person.java. |

8. A method that returns a special error code can sometimes cause problems. The caller might ignore the error code or treat the error code as a valid return value. In this case it is better to throw an exception instead. The following class maintains an account balance and returns a special error code.

public class Account
{
private double balance;
public Account()
{
balance = 0;
}
public Account(double initialDeposit)
{
balance = initialDeposit;
}
public double getBalance()
{
return balance;
}
// returns new balance or -1 if error
public double deposit(double amount)
{
if (amount > 0)
balance += amount;
else
return -1; // Code indicating error
return balance;
}
// returns new balance or -1 if invalid amount
public double withdraw(double amount)
{
if ((amount > balance) || (amount < 0))
return -1;
else
balance -= amount;
return balance;
}
}
Rewrite the class so that it throws appropriate exceptions instead of returning -1 as an error code. Write test code that attempts to withdraw and deposit invalid amounts and catches the exceptions that are thrown.

|Notes: |
| |
|This solution throws a NegativeAmount and InsufficientBalance exception. It is worth pointing out to the students the problems|
|that would occur if negative account balances were desirable. |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in Account.java. |

9. Revise the class Calculator in Listing 9.12 as an applet. Have the user enter input, such as +80, in a text field. Have a button labeled Update that causes the applet to perform the indicated operations, such as +80. Another text field contains the result. Also include a Reset button that restarts a computation—that is, sets result to zero.

|Notes: |
| |
|The calculator applet given here uses the evaluate method from Listing 9.11 and uses the same exception classes |
|(DivideByZeroException and UnknownOpException) but otherwise does not use code directly from the Calculator class. Input is |
|assumed to be a one-character operator, followed by a space, followed by a number. Messages for exceptions are displayed in a|
|JLabel at the bottom of the applet. |
|References: |
| |
|Listing 9.5, Listing 9.10, Listing 9.11 |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in CalculatorApplet.java, calculatorApplet.html. Uses DivideByZeroException.java and UnknowOpException.java. |

11. Write an application or applet that implements a lap timer using the class LapTimer described in Exercise 13. The new lap timer should have two buttons: Start and Lap, as well as two labels, one for the time of the last lap and the other for the total time of all laps. Your class should create a private instance of LapTimer. Any reasonable small number can be used for the number of laps.

|Notes: |
| |
|This is a pretty simple application. Converting the time from milliseconds to seconds for the display is not required, but a |
|nice touch. |
|References: |
| |
|Exercise 9.13 |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in LapTimerApplication.java. Uses LapTimer.java. |

12. Suppose that you are in charge of customer service for a certain business. As phone calls come in, the name of the caller is recorded and eventually a service representative return the call and handles the request.

Write a class ServiceRequests that keeps track of the names of callers. The class should have the following methods:
• addName(name)—adds a name to the list of names. Throws a ServiceBackUpException if there is no free space in the list.
• removeName(name)—removes a name from the list. Throws a NoServiceRequestException if the name is not in the list.
• getName(i)—returns the ith name in the list.
• getNumber—returns the current number of service requests.

Write a program that uses an object of type ServiceRequests to keep track of customers that have called. It should have a loop that, in each iteration, attempts to add a name, remove a name, or print all names. Use an array of size 10 as the list of names.

|Notes: |
| |
|This project is fairly straightforward. ServiceRequests is really a queue. RemoveName is the only complicated methods in the|
|class. An iterative approach that leaves it for last would be a good idea. The program is a basic while loop with multiple |
|cases for each of the operations of the Service request class. |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in ServiceBackUpException.java, NoServiceRequestException.java, ServiceRequests.java, ServiceProgram.java. |

13. Write an application or applet that implements a trip-time calculator. Define and use a class TripComputer to compute the time of a trip. TripComputer should have the private attributes
• totalTime—the total time for the trip
• restStopTaken—a boolean flag that indicates whether a rest stop has been
taken at the end of the current leg and the following methods:
• computeLegTime(distance, speed)—computes the time for a leg of the trip
having a given distance in miles and speed in miles per hour. If either the distance or the speed is negative, throws an exception.
• takeRestStop(time)—takes a rest stop for the given amount of time. If the
time is negative, throws an exception. Also throws an exception if the client
code attempts to take two rest stops in a row.
• getTripTime—returns the current total time for the trip.
Here is one possible configuration of the labels, buttons, and text fields required by the trip-time calculator:

|Notes: |
| |
|This structure of this project is similar to project 11. Even though the class TripComputer is pretty simple, developing and |
|testing it first is advisable. |
|Solution: |
| |
|See the code in TripComputerException.java, TripComputer.java, TripComputerApplication.java. |