Unit 1Title: Born WorkerSuggested Time: 4 days (45 minutes per day)Common Core ELA Standards: RL.8.1, RL.8.2, RL.8.3, RL.8.4, RL.8.10; W.8.2, W.8.4, W.8.9; SL.8.1; L.8.1, L.8.2Teacher InstructionsPreparing for TeachingRead the Big Ideas and Key Understandings and the Synopsis. Please do not read this to the students. This is a description for teachers about the big ideas and key understanding that students should take away after completing this task.Big Ideas and Key Understandings*Hard work and integrity make a person not just a good worker, but a good person. Gary Soto reveals the power of integrity and hard work through two cousins who see life very differently.Synopsis José feels he is destined to a life filled with physical labor. Both of his parents work hard. His mother works at a sewing machine all day, and his father works for the telephone company and often tells José that life is hard. One day after school, Arnie, José’s cousin, proposes a one-sided business venture that leaves José doing all of the physical labor and Arnie doing all of the talking. One of the jobs they find is at Mr. Clemens’s house, scrubbing an empty pool. As usual, José does all of the work; he cleans the pool, while Arnie sits idly by “overseeing the work.” When Mr. Clemens comes out one day to inspect the progress, he loses his balance and falls into the pool “striking his head against the bottom.” Instantly José rushes to the man’s side while Arnie screams that they should run away so they won’t get into trouble. José tells Arnie to call for help, but Arnie rides off on his bike which forces Jose to leave Mr. Clemens’s side to call for help himself.When the fire truck arrives, José tries to explain to a fireman what happened when Arnie returns and starts telling a version of the story in which he is the hero. José walks away in disgust, realizing that he is different from his cousin, the liar. José’s one-dimensional view of himself is dramatically changed.Read the entire selection, keeping in mind the Big Ideas and Key Understandings.Re-read the text while noting the stopping points for the Text Dependent Questions and teaching Tier II/academic vocabulary.During TeachingStudents read the entire selection independently.Teacher reads the text aloud while students follow along or students take turns reading aloud to each other. Depending on the text length and student need, the teacher may choose to read the full text or a passage aloud. For a particularly complex text, the teacher may choose to reverse the order of steps 1 and 2.Students and teacher re-read the text while stopping to respond to and discuss the questions, continually returning to the text. A variety of methods can be used to structure the reading and discussion (i.e., whole class discussion, think-pair-share, independent written response, group work, etc.)Text Dependent QuestionsText-dependent QuestionsEvidence-based AnswersIn the first two paragraphs on page 84, Soto provides phrases to show José is a born worker. Give at least three descriptions. What does each phrase reveal about José? “José was born with a ring of dirt around his neck, with grime under his fingernails, and skin calloused from the grainy twist of a shovel.” This shows that José’s future is manual labor. Even at birth, he already showed signs of years of hard work. This illustrates that José and his family have always known what lies ahead for José.“They said his palms were already rough by the time he was three, and soon after he learned his primary colors, his squint was the squint of an aged laborer.” “They said he was a born worker.” In these quotes, José already had the look of a man that has worked all of his life even though he was only three. It is Jose’s destiny to work hard with his hands and not his mind. “His eye could measure a length of board, and his knees genuflected over flower beds and leafy gutters.” José was seen as a person that was a seasoned worker. His ability to look at a piece of wood and know the length could only be rivaled by journeymen. The phrase “genuflected over flower beds and leafy gutters” show that José might even worship the thought and act of hard work.On page 85 paragraph three, José says he “felt destined to labor.” What evidence from the text explains why he feels this way?José’s parents were both hard workers. His mother came home with “pierced fingers from the sewing machines,” and his father spent his days “climbing splintered, sun-sucked poles.” Even though José did well in school, “he felt his arms would pump, his legs would bend, and his arms would carry a world of earth.” “He believed in hard work.”José’s father sees work and life as a physical laborer, as hard. What text from page 85 supports this? José asks his father “What do you see up there?” His father replies “Work...I see years of work, mi’jo.” José’s father sees work as being hard. “José took it as a truth.”Choose a sentence from page 84 or 85 that best represents the mood of this story so far. Explain your choice.“I see years of work, mi’jo.” “Life is hard.” “...he felt destined to labor.” “She bled on her machine, bled because there was money to make, a child to raise, and a roof to stay under.” This illustrates that the mood is somber and resigned. This is what life is for Jose’s mother and her family and she accepts it. Because of his mother’s response to a lifetime of hard work, Jose feels “destined” to labor as well.On page 85, the author describes Arnie’s family as one that “had never climbed a telephone pole to size up the future.” What does he mean? What phrase from the text supports your conclusion?He means that Arnie’s life is easier. “...spoiled by the trappings of being middle class.” His parents have good jobs in offices and take vacations.What is Arnie’s business proposal to Jose? What is José’s reaction? (Pages 86 and 87)He wants to start a company, but have José do the labor and he will do the talking. Arnie explains the business deal sharing that he (Arnie) is “clever with words” (page 86) and Jose, “who is the best cousin in the whole world was good at working with his hands” (page 86). “Shoot, I’ll round up all kinds of jobs for you. You won’t have to do anything...Except---you know---do the work.” Arnie offers to go fifty-fifty, and José says, “Listen, I’ll go eighty -twenty,” José feels it is a bad deal, so he barters with him. They settle on seventy-thirty.On page 88 and 89, which events or dialogue reaffirm José’s attitude towards Arnie? Explain.“Oh,” Arnie stuttered. “Actually, my cousin José really does the work and I kind of, you know, supervise.”“Oh yeah,” Arnie chimed, speaking for his cousin. “José was born to work.”José would have drowned his cousin if there had been more water.Using evidence from the text, what parallels can be drawn between the interactions of Arnie and Mr. Clemens and Arnie and José? (Pages 88 and 89)Mr. Clemens treats Arnie like a second class citizen. When Arnie introduces himself to Mr. Clemens, he replies, “I’m only paying for one boy.” Arnie tells José “Let me do the talking,” as if José can’t negotiate a deal on his own.Based on the dialogue between Arnie and José on page 91, what is Arnie’s attitude toward José? How do you know?Arnie feels he is better than José because he is “really more French than Mexican.” Arnie asked, “You ever peel before?” Arnie feels that he is better than José because he isn’t as dark as José.In addition, Arnie tells Mr. Clemens, “José’s doing a good job.” This shows that Arnie believes he is better than José.Reread the incident with Mr. Clemens on pages 92 and 93. If you had to describe José with two adjectives, what would they be? If you had to describe Arnie with two adjectives, what would they be? Note dialogue or descriptions that support your adjectives. José-hard working and honestJosé laid the man’s head down and with giant steps leaped out of the pool, shoving his cousin as he passed. He went into the kitchen and punched in 911 on a telephone.He took ice to Mr. Clemens and took care of him.Arnie-conniving and lazyArnie said that they should leave him there.“It’s his own fault.”“We better get out of here!” Arnie suggested. “they’re going to blame us!”I would not change the two adjectives I chose, but I would add selfish for Arnie.How do Jose’s values and view of Arnie change as a result of Mr. Clemens’s accident in the pool? Refer to pages 91-93 and support your answer with specific examples from the text. José's perspective of Arnie changes. Originally, Jose thinks Arnie is a bad worker-- and frames his other opinions in terms of Arnie's work ethic. At the end, Jose realizes Arnie isn't just a bad worker, but a bad person too. José realizes that Arnie, his lazy, conniving cousin, is immoral and the exact opposite of what he wants to be in life. Arnie’s treatment of José and Mr. Clemens has shown José that just because someone has “never climbed up a telephone pole to size up the future” and has all of the material goods desired doesn’t mean that the person is better off (page 85). He is now hopeful about the direction his life is heading. Hard work, responsibility, and dedication aren’t the curse that has haunted him since birth.On pages 84, 85, 92 & 93, Gary Soto refers to the telephone pole. What is the significance of the telephone pole? Use examples from the text to justify your answer.The telephone pole ties the story together with its symbol of the future. In the beginning, the pole represents a bleak future for José. When José asked his father what he saw up there, his father answered, “Work, I see years of work mi’jo.”However, at the end, he sees the pole as representing endless possibilities for the future. “He climbed up and saw for himself what his father saw—miles and miles of trees and houses, and a future lost in the layers of yellowish haze.”José learns that a hard worker is not as negative as he thought in the beginning of the story. Use text from pages 85 and 93 to support your response.José asks his father “What do you see up there?” His father replies “Work...I see years of work, mi’jo” (page 85). José’s father sees work as being hard. “José took it as a truth” (page 85). In the beginning Jose’s father told him that when he climbed the telephone pole he saw “work…years of work” (page 85). Jose saw this as his future and that it would be years of grime, calluses, and labor.“Jose walked away from Arnie’s jabbering. He walked away, and realized that there were people like his cousin, the liar, and people like himself, someone he was getting to know” (page 93). Instead of wishing he had a life like Arnie with “vacations, clothes, and everything he wanted,” he understands now, he needs to take a look again at his own life, character, and future (page 85). He is beginning to realize his future is not as predictable as he thought.“He climbed up and saw for himself what his father saw--miles and miles of trees and houses, and a future lost in the layers of yellowish haze” (page 93). Instead of seeing years and years of hard work, as stated in the beginning by Jose’s father, Jose sees a yellowish haze. This yellow haze means his future isn’t as clearly laid out for him as it once was.Tier II/Academic VocabularyThese words require less time to learn(They are concrete or describe an object/event/process/characteristic that is familiar to students)These words require more time to learn(They are abstract, have multiple meanings, are a part of a word family, or are likely to appear again in future texts)Meaning can be learned from contextPage 84 - callousedPage 87 - grubbingPage 87 - agenciesPage 88 - luggedPage 89 - nozzlePage 90 - dabbedPage 91 - drenchPage 88 - rickety** meaning provided in the textPage 87 - portionPage 86 - retort(ed) Page 87 - portionMeaning needs to be providedPage 84 - pursedPage 84 - guttersPage 85 - pamperedPage 87 - latterPage 88 - occasionallyPage 88 - debrisPage 84 - primaryPage 85 - destinedPage 88 - arrayPage 92 - staggeredCulminating Writing TaskPromptHow does Jose’s character evolve throughout the story? In your answer, include the valuable lesson Jose learned from his interactions with Arnie. Compose an argument that is at least one page in length. Support your claims with valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence from the text, including direct quotations and page numbers. Teacher InstructionsStudents identify their writing task from the prompt provided.Students complete an evidence chart as a pre-writing activity. Teachers should remind students to use any relevant notes they compiled while reading and answering the text-dependent questions.EvidenceQuote or paraphrasePage numberElaboration / explanation of how this evidence supports ideas or argument*“…I see years of work, mi’jo.”*“...José took this as a truth, and though he did well in school, he felt destined to labor.” *“His mother stitched at a machine all day, and his father with a steady job at the telephone company, climbed splintered, sun-sucked poles, fixed wires and looked around the city at tree level.”84-85In the beginning, Soto shows José as a young boy who doesn’t think much of himself or his future. He believes that he will always be a worker, and that is what life has in store for him. His parents’ hard lives reinforce and support those feelings for him.After the accident, Arnie said that they should leave Mr. Clemens there.*“It’s his own fault.”*“We better get out of here!” Arnie suggested. “they’re going to blame us!”“José laid the man’s head down and with giant steps leaped out of the pool, shoving his cousin as he passed. He went into the kitchen and punched in 911 on a telephone. He took ice to Mr. Clemens and took care of him” (page 92). 92José realizes that Arnie, his lazy, conniving cousin, is immoral and the exact opposite of what he wants to be in life. Arnie’s treatment of José and Mr. Clemens has shown José that just because someone has “never climbed up a telephone pole to size up the future” and has all of the material goods desired, doesn’t mean that the person is better off. He is now hopeful of the direction his life is heading. Hard work, responsibility, and dedication aren’t the curse that has haunted him since birth. “He climbed up and saw for himself what his father saw—miles and miles of trees and houses, and a future lost in the layers of yellowish haze.”93At the end, he sees the pole as representing endless possibilities for the future.Once students have completed the evidence chart, they should look back at the writing prompt in order to remind themselves what kind of response they are writing (i.e. expository, analytical, argumentative) and think about the evidence they found. (Depending on the grade level, teachers may want to review students’ evidence charts in some way to ensure accuracy.) From here, students should develop a specific thesis statement. This could be done independently, with a partner, small group, or the entire class. Consider directing students to the following sites to learn more about thesis statements: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/01/ OR http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/ thesis_statement.shtml.Students compose a rough draft. With regard to grade level and student ability, teachers should decide how much scaffolding they will provide during this process (i.e. modeling, showing example pieces, sharing work as students go).Students complete final draft. Sample AnswerIn the short story “Born Worker,” the author, Gary Soto, reveals the power of integrity and hard work through two cousins who see life very differently. Through a life-changing event, Jose, the main character, learns that hard work and integrity make a person not just a good worker, but a good person.In the beginning, Soto describes José as a young boy who doesn’t think much of himself or his future. He believes that he will always be a worker, and that is what life has in store for him. “José was born with a ring of dirt around his neck, with grime under his fingernails, and skin calloused from the grainy twist of a shovel” (page 84). This shows that even at birth he showed the signs of years of hard work. His parents’ hard lives reinforce and support these feelings. “His mother stitched at a machine all day, and his father with a steady job at the telephone company, climbed splintered, sun-sucked poles, fixed wires and looked around the city at tree level” (page 85). Based on Jose’s father’s view from the top of the telephone pole, the distant outlook represents a bleak future for José. Later, Jose’s cousin, Arnie, is introduced. He proposes a one-sided business venture where Jose does all of the manual labor and he does all of the talking. At first, Jose is envious of his cousin and his lifestyle. “His parents showered him with clothes, shoes, CDs, and vacations” (page 85). José thinks Arnie’s life is easier. He was spoiled by the “trappings of being middle class…Arnie’s family had never climbed a telephone pole to size up the future” (page 85). Arnie explains the business deal further, sharing that he (Arnie) is “clever with words” and José, “who is the best cousin in the whole world was good at working with his hands” (page 86). José just thought his cousin was “lazy,” but decides to work with him anyway. During a job with Mr. Clemens, José realizes Arnie’s true character. Arnie is the exact opposite of what José wants to be in life. Although they are both Mexican, Arnie feels that he is better than José because Arnie isn’t as “dark” as José. In addition, Arnie takes his “supervisor” role even further by telling Mr. Clemens that José is doing a “good job,” as if he is actually his superior. While inspecting José’s work, Mr. Clemens, the homeowner, falls and injures himself. Instead of coming to Mr. Clemens’s aid, Arnie screams, “It’s his own fault...we better get out of here…they’re going to blame us!” (page 92). José did the exact opposite of Arnie. He ran over to Mr. Clemens, laid his head down, and ran to the kitchen to call 911. In the crisis, José proves that his integrity and hard work are admirable and that Arnie’s lack of honesty and laziness are shameful. José realizes a middle class life does not always mean “better.” Hard work, responsibility, and dedication aren’t the curse that has haunted him since birth.As José turns to leave Mr. Clemens’ house, he climbs a nearby telephone pole the same way his father has done time and time again. “He climbed up and saw for himself what his father saw—miles and miles of trees and houses, and a future lost in the layers of yellowish haze” (page 93). José sees the pole as representing endless possibilities for the future. He is now hopeful about where his life is heading. Additional TasksImagine what José would say if he were chosen to speak at his eighth-grade graduation. What lessons would he share? Write a speech as if you were José. Explain the values of hard work learned as a result of your experiencing the events in the story. Be sure to use evidence from the story to illustrate your points. Answer: Fellow Students, I am here to share with you the secret to success for your future. It is simple…hard work, which is rooted in honesty and responsibility. This is a lesson I learned recently. I had always believed “the grass was greener on the other side.” I envied those who I felt had an easy life filled with privileges. But I was confused. My parents work hard every day, and they have taught this to me, and all I saw ahead of me was work. I was “destined to labor.” I joined my privileged cousin in a business venture that I hoped would make me rich and make my life “easier” like his was. It didn’t turn out that way. I was to do the work, and my cousin was going to “supervise.” On one of our jobs, a man named Mr. Clemens hurt himself, and I was the one who rescued him, not my cousin. He ran away. He took the easy way out. That is when I realized who I am. I don’t run away from hard work, and I don’t run away from difficult experiences. I now recognize that having an easier life doesn’t prepare one for what it takes to be successful. Self-respect, hard work, and integrity are truly the key. Fellow 8th graders, think about your life’s choices. Do you take the easy route or do you put in “hard work” to accomplish your goals? I can say with confidence, I am proud of my hard work. Thank you. Write a dialogue between José and Arnie, Mr. Clemens and Arnie, or Mr. Clemens and José sharing a possible conversation they would have ten years after the events of the story. What do you think each one would say to each other? Clearly, José learned things, but do you think Arnie did as well? Use evidence from the story (especially the character qualities of both José and Arnie) to support your conversation. You might use this dialogue for a reader’s theater.Answer: Ten years have gone by since Arnie and Jose have seen each other. Their families are having a big family reunion in the park, and José and Arnie encounter each other. Arnie is a bit nervous, while José walks confidently towards Arnie with his hand stuck out in a warm greeting.Arnie: Hi Jose…I thought you would be mad at me.José: (Smiling) No, that was so long ago, and you actually did me a favor.Arnie: A favor…me? I always thought that you hated me. I ran away from Mr. Clemens’s house, and I never paid you for the work. I have felt horrible about it for all of these years.Jose: Don’t! When I helped Mr. Clemens, I realized that the work I was doing was honest work, and there was nothing wrong or menial about it. I had been jealous of you and your life!Arnie: Of me? (Arnie looks around sheepishly.) I am so embarrassed! I used you, and then I couldn’t stick around to help someone other than myself! (Arnie looks Jose straight in the eye.) I have always admired you, Jose. I knew I couldn’t pull off the jobs myself. When people get to know me, they realize I am all talk and no action. I knew you would make us “legit.”Jose: Well, it sounds like you have changed, and that's good. Maybe we can be cousins and friends again. Hey! Maybe I can get you a job with Mr. Clemens! That’s who I work for. That way, you can make it right.Arnie: Thanks! Today is great day, and by the way, I have your seventy percent! Note to TeacherIf students need support for organizing their thoughts, utilize graphic organizers.If students need support for specific terms/concepts (i.e. The use of “they” on page 84 goes to point-of-view or perspective) you might teach a quick mini-lesson.Supports for English Language Learners (ELLs) to use with Anthology Alignment LessonsWhen teaching any lesson, it is important to make sure you are including supports to help all students. We have prepared some examples of different types of supports that you can use in conjunction with our Anthology Alignment Lessons to ensure ELLs can engage fully with the lesson. While these supports reflect research in how to support ELLs, these activities can help ALL students engage more deeply with these lessons. Note that some strategies should be used at multiple points within a lesson; we’ll point these out. It is also important to understand that these scaffolds represent options for teachers to select based on students’ needs; it is not the intention that teachers should do all of these things at every lesson.Before reading: Read passages, watch videos, view photographs, discuss topics (e.g., using the four corners strategy), or research topics that help provide context for what your students will be reading. This is especially true if the setting (e.g., 18th Century England) or topic (e.g., boats) is one that is unfamiliar to the students. Provide explicit instruction, using multiple modalities, on selected vocabulary words that are central to understanding the text. When looking at the lesson plan, you should note the Tier 2 words, particularly those words with high conceptual complexity (i.e., they are difficult to visualize, learn from context clues, and are abstract), and consider introducing them ahead of reading. For more information on selecting such words, go here. You should plan to continue to reinforce these words, and additional vocabulary, in the context of reading and working with the text. (See additional activities in the During Reading and After Reading sections.)Examples of Activities: Provide students with the definition of the words and then have students work together to create Frayer models or other kinds of word maps for the words. When a word contains a prefix or suffix that has been introduced before, highlight how the word part can be used to help determine word meaning.Keep a word wall or word bank where these new words can be added and that students can access later. Have students create visual glossaries for whenever they encounter new words. Then have your students add these words to their visual glossaries. Create pictures using the word. These can even be added to your word wall!Create lists of synonyms and antonyms for the word. Have students practice using the words in conversation. For newcomers, consider providing them with sentence frames to ensure they can participate in the conversation. Use graphic organizers to help introduce content. Examples of Activities: Complete a Know, Want to Learn, Learned (KWL) graphic organizer about the text. Have students research the setting or topic and fill in a chart about it. You could even have students work in groups where each group is assigned part of the topic. Fill in a bubble map where they write down anything that they find interesting about the topic while watching a video or reading a passage about the topic. Then students can discuss why they picked the information. During reading: Allow ELLs to collaborate in their home languages to process content before participating in whole class discussions in English. Consider giving them the discussion questions to look over in advance (perhaps during the first read) and having them work with a partner to prepare. Allow ELLs to use English language that is still under development. Students should not be scored lower because of incorrect spelling or grammar (unless the goal of the assignment is to assess spelling or grammar skills specifically). When grading, be sure to focus on scoring your students only for that objective. Scaffold questions for discussions so that questioning sequences include a mix of factual and inferential questions and a mix of shorter and more extended responses. Questions should build on each other and toward inferential and higher order thinking questions. There are not many factual questions already listed in the lesson instructions, so you will need to build some in as you see fit. More information on this strategy can be found here.Provide explicit instruction, using multiple modalities, on selected vocabulary words (e.g., 5–8 for a given text) that are central to understanding the text. During reading, you should continue to draw attention to and discuss the words that you taught before the reading. Examples of Activities: Have students include the example from the text in a student-created glossary. Create pictures that represent how the word was used in the passage. Create sentences using the word in the way it was used in the passage. Have students discuss the author’s word choice. Examine important sentences in the text that contribute to the overall meaning of the text. Examine sentence structure of a particular sentence. Break down the sentence to determine its meaning. Then determine how this sentence contributes to the overall meaning of the passage. Determine if there is any figurative language in the sentence and have students use context clues to determine the meaning of the figurative language. Use graphic organizers to help organize content and thinking. Examples of Activities: While reading the text, have students fill in a story map to help summarize what has happened. Have students fill in an evidence chart while they read to use with the culminating writing activity. Make sure to model with the students how to fill in the evidence chart by filling in the first couple of rows together as a class. Go over the prompt that the evidence should support, making sure to break down what the prompt means before having the students get to work. If some of your students frequently struggle to understand directions, have the students explain the directions back to you. Provide somewhere for students to store new words that they encounter. Students could use a chart to keep track of these new words and their meanings as they read.If you had students start a KWL before reading, have them fill in the “L” section as they read the passage. After reading: Reinforce new vocabulary using multiple modalities.Examples of activities: Using the words that you had students work with before the reading, require students to include the words in the culminating writing task. Create Frayer models with the words. Then cut up the Frayer models and have the students put the Frayer models back together by matching the pieces for each word.After reading the passage, continue to examine important sentences (1–2) in the text that contribute to the overall meaning of the text. Guide students to break apart these sentences, analyze different elements, and determine meaning. More information on how to do this, including models of sentence deconstruction, can be found here.When completing the writing assignments after reading, consider using these scaffolds to support students depending on their English proficiency. Examples of Activities: For all students, go over the prompt in detail making sure to break down what the prompt means before having the students get to work. Then have the students explain the directions back to you. Have students create an evidence tracking chart during reading, then direct them to look back over their evidence chart and work with a group to see if their evidence matches what the rest of the class wrote down. If some of the chart does not match, students should have a discussion about why.For students who need more support, model the proper writing format for your students and provide them with a properly formatted example for reference.For newcomers, you may consider creating sentence or paragraph frames to help them to write out their ideas.