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Direct and Indirect Objects - currituck.k12.nc.us - direct and indirect object calculator


A. Direct Objects (DO) and Indirect Objects (IO)
A sentence normally has a subejct and a verb:
|María está estudiando. |María [subject] is studying [verb]. |

While most sentences have a subject and a verb, they may also contain other elements, such as direct objects and indirect objects.

(A direct object (objeto directo) may refer to a person or to a thing. The direct object receives the action of the verb; it answers the questions whom? or what? with respect to the verb.
|María está estudiando español. |María is studying Spanish. |

What is María studying? Spanish.
|Amo a mi esposa. |I love my wife. |

Whom do I love? My wife. (Notice the ‘personal a’: Whenever the direct object refers to a person or a pet, we put a in front of it; there is no English equivalent for this construction)

(An indirect object (objeto indirecto) generally refers to a person. It expresses to whom? or for whom? something is done.
|Mis padres me escriben muchas cartas. |My parents write me many letters. |

To whom do my parents write many letters? To me.

quick review of direct object pronouns and indirect object pronouns in Spanish:

|direct object pronouns: |indirect object pronouns: |
|me |me |
|nos |nos |
| | |
|te |te |
|os |os |
| | |
|lo, la |le |
|los, las |les |
| | |

Notice the differences in the third-person row. In order to use object pronouns correctly, we need to know what kind of pronoun we're dealing with.

We've already looked at how to use DOPs and IOPs individually, but what if we want to use them together in the same sentence?

How to Use Direct & Indirect Object Pronouns Together the sentence order will be:

subject → IOP → DOP → verb

For example:

Mi madre regaló juguetes a mí.
My mom gave toys to me.
↓Mi madre ____ ______ regaló.
My mom gave them to me.

The indirect object, a mí, becomes me. The direct object, juguetes, becomes los. The order is: subject, IOP, DOP, verb.

Another DOP and IOP example:

Mi abuela mandó unas flores a mi tía.
My grandmother sent some flowers to my aunt.

Mi abuela ____ _____ mandó.
My grandmother sent them to her.

What!? Now what just happened? The IOP should be le, right? Yes, but…

Substituting Se In order to avoid alliteration, if we have two object pronouns in a row that begin with the letter "l," we always change the first pronoun to "se." That means that anytime le or les is combined with lo, la, los, orlas, the le or les becomes se. This rule only applies to "l" words; me, te, nos, and os are unaffected. And since the IOP always comes first in the sentence, you will only ever substitute se for le or les, never lo,la, los, or las:

|original: |original: |
|  |  |
|becomes: |becomes: |
| | |
|le lo |les lo |
|le la |les la |
|le los |les los |
|le las |les las |
|→ |→ |
|→ |→ |
|→ |→ |
|→ |→ |
|se lo |se lo |
|se la |se la |
|se los |se los |
|se las |se las |
| | |

Note that le and les both become se. There is no "ses."

For example:

Los estudiantes devolvieron el libro a la maestra.
los estudiantes _______ _______ devolvieron

Jaime mandó la carta a su hijo.

Jaime _____ ______ mandó

Nosotros dimos las fotos a nuestros padres.
Nosotros ______ _______ dimos.

. Contesta las siguientes [following] preguntas.

1. ¿Cuándo miras la televisión? _______________________________

2. ¿Cuándo escuchas la radio? _______________________________

3. ¿Dónde haces las actividades del libro de texto? __________________

4. ¿Cuándo haces la tarea? ______________________________________

5. ¿Dónde escribes mensajes electrónicos? _________________________