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# Chapter 7 Aggregate Demand, Aggregate Supply, and the Self … - horizontal curve formulas

Chapter 7 Aggregate Demand, Aggregate Supply,
and the Self-Correcting Economy

1) The aggregate demand curve may be derived from the IS-LM analysis by shifting
A) the IS curve as the price changes.
B) the real money supply and thus LM curve for each new price level.
C) both the LM and IS curves since the real money supply and real expenditures change when P changes.
D) the LM rightward when P increases to define Y.

2) If the interest responsiveness of business firms investment is great then the
A) IS curve is flatter and the AD curve is flatter.
B) IS curve is steeper and the AD curve is steeper.
C) IS curve is horizontal and the AD curve is perfectly vertical.
D) IS curve is horizontal and the AD curve is perfectly horizontal.

3) Let the government increase lump-sum taxes. The aggregate demand curve will
A) shift leftward and the IS curve will shift leftward.
B) shift rightward and the IS curve will shift rightward.
C) remain unaffected but the IS curve will shift leftward.
D) become positively sloped but the IS curve will remain negatively sloped.

4) An increase in the price level will
A) increase the real money supply and shift the aggregate demand curve.
B) decrease the real money supply and shift the aggregate demand curve.
C) change the slope of the aggregate demand curve at each income level.
D) None of the above is correct.

Figure 7-1
[pic]

5) Employing Figure 7-1, assume that the initial equilibrium Y was 2500 at E0 prior to a change in the nominal money supply. The movement from E0 to H' represents
A) an increase in the nominal money supply with a constant interest rate.
B) an increase in the nominal money supply with a constant price level.
C) a decrease in the nominal money supply with a constant price level.
D) a decrease in the nominal money supply with a rising interest rate.

6) A doubling of the nominal money supply would create a new AD curve at double the vertical position of the original AD curve because
A) at each price level there is a decrease in autonomous spending.
B) each output level requires the same real money supply as in the original situation.
C) the rise in money supply causes increased expectation of further price increases and investment declines.
D) the rise in the money supply causes an excess supply of money and generates rising interest rates.

7) A steeper LM curve implies that the aggregate demand curve will be
A) steeper and the k1 multiplier becomes smaller.
B) flatter and the k1 multiplier becomes larger.
C) unaffected and the k1 multiplier becomes smaller.
D) horizontal and k1 multiplier becomes larger.

8) A flatter IS curve implies that the aggregate demand curve will be
A) steeper and the k1 multiplier becomes larger.
B) flatter and the k1 multiplier becomes smaller.
C) unaffected and the k1 multiplier becomes smaller.
D) vertical and the k1 multiplier becomes smaller.

9) A rise in the nominal money supply will
A) shift the IS curve and shift the AD curve.
B) shift the AD curve and raise the equilibrium price level.
C) shift the AD curve and raise the equilibrium level of nominal GDP.
D) All of the above are correct.

10) The LM curve will shift to the
A) left if the price level falls and the quantity of money is held constant.
B) right if the price level rises and the quantity of money is held constant.
C) left if the price level is held constant and the quantity of money rises.
D) right if the price level falls and/or the quantity of money rises.

11) The AD curve will shift to the
A) right if the price level falls and the quantity of money is held constant.
B) right if the price level rises and the quantity of money is held constant.
C) right if the price level is held constant and the quantity of money rises.
D) right if the price level is held constant and the quantity of money falls.

12) If money demand relative to the level of real output is constant then, the slope of the AD curve is
A) steeper the steeper the slope of the LM curve.
B) flatter the flatter the slope of the LM curve.
C) steeper the flatter the slope of the LM curve.
D) horizontal if the LM curve is vertical.

13) If the marginal leakage rate is small, then the AD is
A) flatter.
B) steeper.
C) perfectly vertical.
D) perfectly horizontal.

14) The slope of the AD curve is important because it explains the
A) responsiveness of consumers to changes in the price level.
B) impact on Y and P for a given change in the SAS curve.
C) responsiveness of money demand to price changes.
D) responsiveness of business firms to price changes.

15) The slope of the SAS curve is important because it
A) explains the impact of supply side policies on the economy.
B) explains the impact of both supply and demand side policies on Y and P.
C) partially explains the impact of AD stabilization policies on Y and P.
D) None of the above.

16) An increase in the nominal money supply will shift
A) AD up and raise the price level.
B) AD down and lower the price level.
C) SAS up and raise the price level.
D) SAS down and lower the price level.

17) Suppose that the administration proposes to follow a contractionary fiscal policy. This would cause the
A) AD to shift rightward and raise the price level.
B) SAS to shift rightward and lower the price level.
C) AD to shift leftward and lower the price level.
D) SAS to shift leftward and raise the price level.

18) An "easy money, easy fiscal" policy combination would shift AD
A) upward to the left and raise the price level.
B) downward to the left and raise the price level.
C) upward to the right and raise the price level.
D) downward to the left and lower the price level.

19) Which of the following factors will not cause the AD curve to shift?
A) tax rates.
B) autonomous exports.
C) changes in the marginal product of labor.
D) consumer confidence.

20) If there are perfectly flexible prices and the economy is operating at Y(N), then an increase in government expenditures
A) will increase real GDP and the price level.
B) will increase nominal GDP and the raise price level.
C) will not lead to complete real crowding out.
D) will lead to complete nominal crowding out and have the price level unchanged.

21) When the real wage falls, as a result of a rise in the price level
A) the demand for labor will fall.
B) the supply of labor will rise.
C) firms will hire more labor as they move down the demand curve for labor.
D) the nominal wage will fall.

22) If, other things constant, the actual real wage is below the equilibrium real wage, the short-run aggregate supply curve in the next period would
A) be unaffected and the price level would remain constant.
B) shift upward and the price level would increase.
C) shift downward and the price level would fall.
D) be vertical and the price level would increase.

23) The long-run aggregate supply curve is
A) vertical at the natural level of income.
B) horizontal at the natural price level.
C) upward-sloping for all income levels below the natural level of income.
D) downward-sloping for all income levels above the natural level of income.

24) If the price level were to rise, the short-run aggregate supply curve in the next period will
A) shift upward.
B) shift downward.
C) become steeper.
D) None of the above is correct.

25) The short-run aggregate supply curve slopes upward because, with a given equilibrium wage rate, a higher actual price level will
A) reduce the actual real wage and induce firms to hire more labor.
B) shift the labor supply curve.
C) increase the aggregate demand for goods, so that output will rise.
D) All of these.

26) The position of the short-run aggregate supply curve depends on
A) the price level.
B) workers' expectations.
C) aggregate demand.
D) the actions of the monetary authority.

27) A fiscal expansion will
A) raise both the price level and real income in the long run.
B) reduce both the price level and the real income in the short run.
C) raise real income but leave the price level unaffected in the long run.
D) raise both the price level and real income in the short run.

28) Which of the following will NOT shift the aggregate demand curve?
A) an increase in the money supply
B) a change in the price level
C) a reduction in the marginal propensity to save
D) an increase in government spending

29) The fixed price level that was assumed in Chapters 3 through 5 implied that
A) there is always full employment.
B) there is always less than full employment.
C) the aggregate supply curve is upward sloping to the left.
D) the aggregate supply curve is horizontal.

30) If the productivity of labor were suddenly to increase, we would expect to observe
A) a short-run rise in output and fall in prices.
B) an increase in the natural level of real GDP.
C) a downward shift in the aggregate supply curve.
D) All of the above are correct.

Figure 7-2
[pic]

31) In Figure 7-2, the shifts F0 to F1 and N0d to N1d may have occurred in an economy subjected to a
A) permanent fiscal deficit.
B) temporary fiscal deficit.
C) permanent increase in the relative price of energy.
D) permanent increase in the rate of growth of the money supply.

32) As firms hire more labor
A) the supply of labor increases.
B) each additional worker hired produces an additional amount of output but at a diminishing rate.
C) each additional worker hired produces an additional amount of output but at an increasing rate.
D) the marginal labor cost of output decreases.

33) Given the technology and the amount of other resources available, the position of the demand for labor depends on the
A) supply of labor.
B) other firms' demand for labor.
C) rate of population growth.
D) price level.

34) The equilibrium real wage rate
A) is equal to the nominal wage rate.
B) equals the actual real wage rate in short-run equilibrium.
C) equals the actual real wage rate at every point on the SS curve.
D) is determined by the intersection of the labor supply and demand curves.

35) If the actual real wage rate is above the equilibrium real wage rate there will be
A) pressure for the actual real wage rate to rise.
B) pressure for the actual real wage rate to decline.
C) a tendency for prices to rise and output to fall.
D) None of the above.

Figure 7-3
[pic]

36) Employing Figure 7-3 with equilibrium initially at E0, assume the nominal money supply eased. If prices are flexible, in the short run ____________ and in the long run ____________.
A) prices and output rise as in E2; output remains at 3000
B) prices and output remain at E0; output changes to 2500
C) prices and output rise, E0 to E2; output returns to E3
D) None of the above.

37) Assuming constant wages implies that
A) an increase in the price of goods raises profits and SAS is vertical.
B) a decrease in the price of goods lowers profits and SAS is horizontal.
C) an increase in the price of goods lowers profits and SAS is vertical.
D) an increase in the price of goods raises profits and SAS is positively sloped.

38) In the short-run with fixed wages, the SAS curve is positively sloped because
A) the marginal product of labor declines, marginal costs rise.
B) the marginal product of labor increases, marginal costs rise.
C) marginal cost equals price and marginal costs decline.
D) None of the above.

39) The demand for labor is determined by
A) the marginal product of labor, and technology.
B) the marginal product of labor, the price of goods, and nominal wages.
C) MPN and the CPI.
D) None of the above.

40) If firms hire workers until the real wage, W/P, is equal to the marginal product of labor, MPN, then the firm
A) maximizes employment.
B) maximizes employment and profits.
C) maximizes profits.
D) minimizes "waste," such as pollution.

41) Suppose that the discovery of cold fusion implies that the productivity of each worker in the economy doubles. This would cause the
A) AD curve to shift up and the SAS curve to remain stationary.
B) SAS curve to shift rightward.
C) SAS curve to shift leftward.
D) AD curve to shift down and the SAS curve to shift upward.

42) With a fixed nominal wage the SAS curve is positively sloped because
A) an increase in P decreases the real wage and raises profits if output is increased.
B) A decrease in P decreases the real wage and raises profits if output is increased.
C) business firms are responsive to interest rates.
D) the marginal leakage rate is small.

43) The SAS curve will be steeper the
A) greater is the marginal product of each additional worker.
B) greater is MC.
C) greater is the nominal wage.
D) the faster the MPN falls for each additional worker.

44) If labor unions negotiate an increase in the nominal wage rate the SAS curve will shift
A) upward to the right and output will increase.
B) downward to the right and output will increase.
C) downward to the left and output will decrease.
D) upward to the left and output will decrease.

45) The labor supply curve may be shifted if
A) jobs are scarce.
B) jobs are plentiful.
C) real wages change.
D) immigration increases.

46) The SAS curve is positively sloped because workers, in the short-run, will supply the labor required by
A) households at the fixed real wage.
B) business firms at the fixed real wage.
C) business firms at the fixed nominal wage.
D) A and B.

47) The classical economists believed that shifts in the AD and SAS curves offset each other such that the
A) price level rose and output fell unidirectionally given any change in aggregate demand
B) unemployment level is constant
C) price level is constant
D) price level is cyclical

48) In the classical model, flexible prices and wages serve to
A) self-correct the economy guaranteeing a constant price level and a constant level of output
B) self-correct the economy above to the natural rate of unemployment, and constant price level
C) ensure that stabilization policy is not required on the part of fiscal authorities
D) none of the above

49) Classical economists believed that
A) government intervention was necessary to stabilize the economy
B) movements away from the natural rate of output were only temporary
C) monetary policy was ineffective
D) monetary impotence would make fiscal policy necessary to bring the economy out of a depression

50) In a self-correcting economy, an increase in government expenditures in the long-run will
A) raise equilibrium real GDP and raise the price level
B) lower the price level but leave real GDP unaffected
C) raise nominal GDP but leave real GDP unaffected
D) leave the price level and real GDP unaffected

51) To the classical economists it was ______ not ______ which adjust when unemployment differs from the natural rate
A) wages; prices
B) prices; wages
C) output; prices
D) prices; output

52) The Classical Economists believed that
A) the cure for wage sickness was the passage of labor laws requiring the indexing of wages to changes in normal GDP.
B) the cure for unemployment was the passage of labor laws requiring the indexing of wages to changes in nominal GDP.
C) the cure for wage stickiness was to remedy market inefficiencies.
D) unemployment required active government intervention to manipulate AD.

Figure 7-4
[pic]

53) According to the classical economists when aggregate demand declines, AD0 to AD1 in Figure 7-4, and output, falls below the natural rate of unemployment at 3000, wages and prices would
A) fall to E1 causing output to rise and unemployment would be temporary.
B) rise to E0 causing output to rise and unemployment would be temporary.
C) rise to A causing output to fall and unemployment would be temporary.
D) fall to A causing output to fall and unemployment would be permanently increased.

54) According to the classical economists when output Y rises above the natural rate of employment, wages and prices would
A) fall causing output to rise; unemployment would be permanent.
B) rise causing output to rise; increased employment would be temporary.
C) rise causing output to fall; increased employment would be temporary.
D) fall causing output to fall; unemployment would be temporary.

55) What key assumption changed the quantity equation into the quantity theory of money?
A) wage rates were flexible
B) only cash, currency, and demand deposits were considered money
C) the velocity of money was relatively stable
D) the money supply grew at a steady rate over the long run

56) The term monetary impotence refers to the
A) failure of firms to lower prices even when wages are falling.
B) problems that an economy faces when industries are not perfectly competitive and prices do not fluctuate.
C) failure of fiscal policy to drive down prices in a depression.
D) inability of an increase in real balances to raise the level of output.

57) The Pigou effect refers to the fact that autonomous expenditures may depend on
A) interest rates and variations in the perceived value of money balances.
B) the real money supply and variations in the perceived value of money balances.
C) income and variations in the perceived value of money balances.
D) taxes and variations in the perceived value of money balances.

58) The Pigou effect is
A) the stimulus to aggregate demand from a fall in the interest rate.
B) the effect of a cut in taxes on the aggregate demand curve.
C) the effect of a fall in prices on aggregate demand curve.
D) the direct stimulus to consumption because of an increase in the real value of the money supply.

59) Pigou's explanation of the existence of unemployment required
A) wage "stickiness" or slowness of wages to adjust to changes in market conditions.
B) fixed goods price or slowness of prices to adjust to changes in market conditions.
C) Churchill's introduction of unemployment compensation.
D) all of the above.

60) If the Pigou effect characterizes the economy then the slope
A) of the aggregate demand curve is zero; the aggregate supply curve is vertical.
B) of the aggregate supply curve is zero; the aggregate demand curve is vertical.
C) of both the AD and SAS curves are vertical.
D) of the AD cannot be vertical; the aggregate supply curve is unaffected.

61) According to Pigou, the Keynesian dilemma of a vertical AD curve is not a dilemma at all because the demand for commodities depends directly on the level of real balances. Thus, the
A) IS curve would shift to the left whenever the price level falls.
B) AD curve would shift to the left whenever the price level falls.
C) AD curve would shift to the right whenever the price level falls.
D) AD curve would always have a negative slope.

62) The Pigou effect might be ineffective in correcting a recession if
A) prices are falling.
B) people expect the implied deflation to continue.
C) there is a liquidity trap.
D) the government does not expand the money supply.

63) During the Great Depression
A) there is good evidence that the LM curve was horizontal.
B) there was almost perfect price flexibility.
C) wages fell continuously.
D) there was a major shift in aggregate demand.

64) The redistribution effect refers to the situation in which
A) a redistribution policy might raise consumption because poorer people spend a greater percentage of their income than the rich.
B) rising prices might make creditors feel wealthier and encourage them to increase their spending.
C) rising prices might make debtors feel less wealthy and encourage them to cut back on their spending.
D) falling prices might make debtors feel less wealthy and encourage them to cut back on their spending.

65) Which of the following groups was not affected by the redistribution effect
A) farmers in the 1930s
B) oil producers in the 1980s
C) home owners in the 1970s
D) social security recipients in the 1970s

66) What explanation for monetary impotence was supported by the events of the Great Depression?
A) vertical IS curve and a horizontal LM curve
B) shifting IS curve and a vertical LM curve
C) horizontal IS curve and a vertical LM curve
D) a vertical IS curve and shifting IS curve

67) Keynes' argued that monetary policy would be impotent during the Great Depression, because
A) both the IS and the LM curve were vertical.
B) IS curve was continuously shifting, while the LM curve was stable.
C) IS curve was vertical and stuck at a low level of Y.
D) none of the above.

68) Keynes' argued that monetary policy would be impotent during the Great Depression
because a
A) fall in interest rates would stimulate investment.
B) fall in interest rates would not stimulate investment.
C) rise in interest rates should not stimulate investment.
D) rise in interest rates would stimulate investment.

69) Keynes argued that monetary policy would be impotent during the Great Depression because
A) the LM curve was horizontal and the IS curve was vertical.
B) the LM curve was continuously shifting and the IS curve was vertical.
C) the LM curve was vertical and the IS curve was nearly flat.
D) both the LM curve and the IS curve were shifting rightward at the same time.

70) Evidence that a horizontal LM curve occurred during the middle depression years would require showing that individuals
A) refused to spend excess money.
B) increased the spending of excess money.
C) sold bonds and bought goods.
D) sold assets and bought bonds.

71) Even in the event of a horizontal LM curve, classicists argued that government intervention would not be required if the IS curve shifts in response to changes in
A) the price level (the Pigou effect).
B) the unemployment level (the real balance effect).
C) interest rate (the Keynes effect.
D) exchange rate (the expectations effect).

72) We have inflation
A) only when the price of every good is rising.
B) when the prices of most goods are rising.
C) when the prices of most goods are falling.
D) only when the price of every good is falling.

73) A rise in the price level causes
A) the LM curve to shift downward.
B) the LM curve to shift upward.
C) movement up along an LM curve.
D) movement down along an LM curve.

74) Suppose we have an initial equilibrium with curves IS0 and LM0. The price level then rises. At every point on LM0 there is now an excess ____________ real balances, which is eliminated at each income level by a _____ in the interest rate, meaning that the new LM curve is _______ LM0.
A) demand for, fall, above
B) demand for, fall, below
C) demand for, rise, above
D) supply of, rise, above
E) supply of, fall, below

75) Suppose we have an initial equilibrium with curves IS0 and LM0. The price level then falls. At every point on LM0 there is now an excess ____________ real balances, which is eliminated at each income level by a _____ in the interest rate, meaning that the new LM curve is _______ LM0.
A) demand for, fall, above
B) demand for, fall, below
C) demand for, rise, above
D) supply of, rise, above
E) supply of, fall, below

76) A fall in the price level causes
A) the LM curve to shift downward.
B) the LM curve to shift upward.
C) movement up along an LM curve.
D) movement down along an LM curve.

77) Suppose we have an initial IS-LM equilibrium at a certain price level. A rise in the price level puts __________ pressure on the interest rate as the money market re-equilibrates, which in turn causes commodity market equilibrium to occur at an output level _______ the initial one.
A) upward, above
B) upward, below
C) downward, above
D) downward, below

78) A single aggregate demand curve records how IS-LM equilibrium output changes as _____________ changes.
A) the IS curve
B) the nominal money supply
C) government expenditure
D) the price level

79) A fall in the price level causes changes in the IS-LM diagram that can also be recorded as a
A) rightward shift of the AD curve.
B) leftward shift of the AD curve.
C) movement downward along an AD curve.
D) movement upward along an AD curve.

80) Consider an initial IS-LM equilibrium in which the nominal money supply is 1000 and the price level is 1.0. As the price level falls to 0.5, then to 0.333, and then to 0.25, the effect on real balances means that AD
A) becomes flatter.
B) shifts upward by less and less.
C) shifts downward by less and less.
D) shifts downward by the same amount.
E) becomes upward-sloping at price levels below 1.0.

81) At every point to the right of the AD curve there is
A) an excess demand for real balances.
B) an excess supply of real balances.
C) an excess demand for commodities.
D) an excess supply of commodities.

82) Should the nominal money supply rise by six percent, real balances would remain unaffected if at the same time the price level _______ by six percent, which translates into the aggregate demand diagram as _____________________.
A) rises, a movement upward along AD by six percent
B) rises, an upward shift of AD by six percent
C) rises, a movement downward along AD by six percent
D) falls, a movement downward along AD by six percent
E) falls, a downward shift of AD by six percent

Consider an initial IS-LM equilibrium point which corresponds to a point labeled "A" on the current AD curve.

83) If the nominal money supply falls by 4 percent with no change in the price level, the resulting IS-LM equilibrium corresponds to a point in the AD diagram
A) which has moved upward along the same AD curve.
B) 4 percent straight above A on a new AD curve.
C) 4 percent straight below A on a new AD curve.
D) directly to the right of A on a new AD curve.
E) directly to the left of A on a new AD curve.

84) If the nominal money supply falls by 4 percent, accompanied by a 4 percent fall in the price level, the resulting IS-LM equilibrium corresponds to a point in the AD diagram
A) which is exactly point A again.
B) 4 percent straight above A on a new AD curve.
C) 4 percent straight below A on a new AD curve.
D) directly to the right of A on a new AD curve.
E) directly to the left of A on a new AD curve.

85) If government spending increases with no change in the price level, the resulting IS-LM equilibrium corresponds to a point in the AD diagram
A) which has moved downward along the same AD curve.
B) straight above A on a new AD curve.
C) straight below A on a new AD curve.
D) directly to the right of A on a new AD curve.
E) directly to the left of A on a new AD curve.

86) If business confidence improves with no change in the price level, the resulting IS-LM equilibrium corresponds to a point in the AD diagram
A) which has moved downward along the same AD curve.
B) straight above A on a new AD curve.
C) straight below A on a new AD curve.
D) directly to the right of A on a new AD curve.
E) directly to the left of A on a new AD curve.

87) If the overall tax rate increases with no change in the price level, the resulting IS-LM equilibrium corresponds to a point in the AD diagram
A) which has moved upward along the same AD curve.
B) straight above A on a new AD curve.
C) straight below A on a new AD curve.
D) directly to the right of A on a new AD curve.
E) directly to the left of A on a new AD curve.

88) Consider an initial IS-LM-BP equilibrium point for a small open economy in a flexible exchange rate system. That point corresponds to a point labeled "A" on the current AD curve. If autonomous net exports increase with no change in the price level, the resulting IS-LM equilibrium corresponds to a point in the AD diagram
A) which is exactly point A again.
B) straight above A on a new AD curve.
C) straight below A on a new AD curve.
D) directly to the right of A on a new AD curve.
E) directly to the left of A on a new AD curve.

89) If firms are willing to produce and sell more output when prices rise, this implies
A) an upward-sloping short-run aggregate supply curve.
B) a vertical short-run aggregate supply curve.
C) an upward-sloping aggregate demand curve.
D) a horizontal aggregate supply curve.

90) Suppose the aggregate demand curve shifts rightward against a horizontal short-run aggregate supply curve. Real GDP would _________ while the price level __________.
A) remain unchanged, rises
B) rise, rises
C) remain unchanged, falls
D) rise, remain unchanged
E) fall, rises

91) Suppose the aggregate demand curve shifts rightward against an upward-sloping short-run aggregate supply curve. Real GDP would ____________ while the price level ____________.
A) remain unchanged, rises
B) rise, rises
C) remain unchanged, falls
D) rise, remain unchanged
E) fall, rises

92) From one period to the next, the change in real GDP depends on the shift in aggregate demand
A) but not on how SAS might shift.
B) and on SAS, but only if it also shifts.
C) and on SAS, but only if it is horizontal.
D) and on the slope and shifting of SAS.

93) Because of __________ marginal product of labor, the labor demand curve slopes ________.
A) rising, upward
B) rising, downward
C) diminishing, downward
D) diminishing, upward

94) The "marginal product of labor" curve describes
A) how much more labor is hired when the price of output rises by \$1.
B) how much more labor is hired when the nominal wage falls by \$1.
C) how much more output is produced by hiring one more unit of labor.
D) how much more revenue is earned by producing one more unit of output.

95) Which of the following is the basic rule by which firms find the number of workers to hire?
A) real wage = output price
B) real wage = marginal product of labor
C) marginal product of labor = output price
D) none of the above

96) Suppose that firms are operating at a point where marginal product of labor = 20, the nominal wage is \$60, and the price level is \$4. Because the real wage is ______ than the marginal product of labor, firms are hiring ______ workers.
A) less, too few
B) less, too many
C) greater, too few
D) greater, too many

97) When the price firm's receive for their output rises, the resulting _______ in the real wage rate leads firms to profitably employ _____ labor than before, thus _______ the amount of output willingly supplied.
A) fall, more, raising
B) fall, less, raising
C) rise, less, lower
D) rise, more, raising

98) With the nominal wage rate given, an increase in the price level leads to
A) movement downward along a short-run aggregate supply curve (SAS).
B) movement upward along a short-run aggregate supply curve (SAS).
C) a rightward shift of the short-run aggregate supply curve (SAS).
D) a leftward shift of the short-run aggregate supply curve (SAS).

99) We derive the aggregate labor demand curve by horizontally adding all firms'
A) marginal product of labor curves.
B) production function curves.
C) supply curves.
D) horizontal lines at the real wage.

100) With a falling price level, we move ________ along the demand for labor curve and thus trace _________ along the short-run aggregate supply curve.
A) upward, upward
B) upward, downward
C) downward, upward
D) downward, downward

101) What is held constant at all points along a single SAS curve?
A) the nominal wage rate.
B) the amount of labor employed.
C) the price level.
D) the real wage rate.
E) real GDP.

102) Along a short-run aggregate supply curve firms are willing to produce more output if a ________ causes the real wage to ________.
A) higher nominal wage, rise
B) lower nominal wage, fall
C) higher price level, rise
D) lower nominal wage, rise
E) higher price level, fall

103) When the nominal wage rate rises by x percent we
A) move upward along the SAS curve by x percent.
B) move downward along the SAS curve by x percent.
C) shift SAS upward by x percent.
D) shift SAS downward by x percent.

104) Suppose that the nominal wage falls by x percent, and a certain change in the price level maintains the same real wage as before. In the SAS diagram these events cause
A) no change at all, as they offset each other.
B) a downward movement along the SAS curve.
C) an upward movement along the SAS curve.
D) a downward shift of the SAS curve.
E) an upward shift of the SAS curve.

105) The long-run buildup of an economy's capital stock _______ the marginal product of labor thus shifting the labor demand curve to the ______, which then causes _________________________.
A) increases, right, SAS to shift to the right
B) increases, right, movement up the SAS curve
C) increases, left, SAS to shift to the left
D) decreases, right, SAS to shift to the left
E) decreases, left, movement down the SAS curve

106) If the labor supply curve shifts to the left, the equilibrium real wage _______ and the equilibrium level of employment _______.
A) rises, rises
B) rises, falls
C) falls, rises
D) falls, falls

107) With unchanging labor supply and demand curves, employment greater than equilibrium employment requires a real wage _______ the equilibrium real wage, at a point that is off of the labor ________ curve.
A) below, supply
B) below, demand
C) above, supply
D) above, demand

108) Suppose that from an initial labor market equilibrium the price level suddenly falls. The resulting movement _______ the labor demand curve results in an excess ___________ labor, which then puts _______ pressure on the nominal wage to restore labor market equilibrium.
A) up, demand for, upward
B) down, supply of, upward
C) up, supply of, downward
D) down, demand for, upward
E) up, demand for, downward

109) From an initial AD/SAS/LAS intersection, a fiscal stimulus with no initial change in the nominal wage causes output to _________ while the price level __________.
A) rise, remains constant
B) rise, rises
C) remains constant, rises
D) remains constant, falls
E) fall, rises

110) At any AD/SAS intersection to the right of LAS, excess ________ in the labor market is putting _______ pressure on the nominal wage.
A) supply, upward
B) supply, downward
C) demand, upward
D) demand, downward

111) At any AD/SAS intersection to the left of LAS, excess ________ in the labor market is putting _______ pressure on the nominal wage.
A) supply, upward
B) supply, downward
C) demand, upward
D) demand, downward

112) Suppose that from an initial AD/SAS/LAS intersection, the money supply grows by ten percent. At the same time, the nominal wage rises by six percent. As a result, output will be _______ the natural GDP, with a price level ____________________.
A) below, 10 percent lower
B) below, 10 percent higher
C) below, between 6 and 10 percent lower
D) above, that is unchanged
E) above, between 6 and 10 percent higher

113) Suppose that from an initial AD/SAS/LAS intersection, the money supply grows by six percent. At the same time, the nominal wage rises by ten percent. As a result, output will be _______ the natural GDP, with a price level ____________________.
A) below, 10 percent lower
B) below, 10 percent higher
C) below, between 6 and 10 percent higher
D) above, that is unchanged
E) above, between 6 and 10 percent higher

Figure 7-5
[pic]

114) In Figure 7-5, a fiscal expansion from point A with no initial change in the nominal wage causes a movement to point
A) B.
B) C.
C) D.
D) E.
E) F.

115) In Figure 7-5, we begin with the expansion of aggregate demand in the IS-LM model, with a result transferred into this model as a movement from points A to
A) B.
B) C.
C) D.
D) E.
E) F.

116) In Figure 7-5, from point A suppose the shift in aggregate demand is due to a 6 percent rise in the money supply. Suppose that at the same time the nominal wage also rises by 6 percent. We would move from points A to
A) B.
B) C.
C) D.
D) E.
E) F.

117) In Figure 7-5, from an initial long-run equilibrium the net tax rate rises with no initial change in the nominal wage. We would show this as a movement from points
A) A to B.
B) A to F.
C) B to E.
D) E to B.
E) E to F.

118) In Figure 7-5, from point A sudden increases in the price of crude oil would move us to point
A) B.
B) C.
C) D.
D) E.
E) F.

119) In Figure 7-5, at point C, the real wage is __________ its equilibrium value, leading to changes in the nominal wage that _____________.
B) below, shift AD1 further to the right.
C) below, shift SAS0 upward.
D) above, shift SAS0 downward.

120) In Figure 7-5, at point F, the real wage is __________ its equilibrium value, leading to changes in the nominal wage that _____________.
B) below, shift AD0 further to the left.
C) below, shift SAS3 upward.
D) above, shift SAS3 downward.

121) In Figure 7-5, from initial point A, suppose AD0 shifts to AD1. Under the assumptions of classical macroeconomics, we would
A) stay at point A.
B) almost immediately move to and then stay at point B.
C) almost immediately move to and then stay at point C.
D) almost immediately move to and then stay at point E.

122) In Figure 7-5, from initial point E, suppose AD1 shifts to AD0. Under the assumptions of classical macroeconomics, we would
A) stay at point E.
B) almost immediately move to and then stay at point A.
C) almost immediately move to and then stay at point F.
D) almost immediately move to and then stay at point B.

123) That the LAS curve is vertical means that
A) firms are willing to produce any amount of output demanded at the fixed price level.
B) actual real GDP does not depend on the value of natural real GDP.
C) natural real GDP does not depend on the price level.
D) output never deviates from the natural real GDP.

124) Classical macroeconomists believed that a market-based economy has _________ self-correcting forces and thus ________________ business cycles.
A) strong, mild and fleeting
B) strong, violent and prolonged
C) weak, mild and fleeting
D) weak, violent and prolonged

125) Most classical macroeconomists considered unemployment
A) a minor problem due to the rapidity of downward price level changes.
B) a minor problem due to the sluggishness of downward price level changes.
C) a major problem due to the sluggishness of downward price level changes.
D) a major problem due to the rapidity of downward price level changes.

126) The "quantity theory of money" was employed by Classical macroeconomists to predict changes in the price level. Changes in P were forecast to be
A) proportional to changes in the money supply.
B) inversely proportional to changes in velocity.
C) proportional to changes in natural real GDP.
D) inversely proportional to changes in real GDP.

127) The result of raising government spending in the IS-LM model can be translated to the "quantity equation" as equal-proportional changes in
A) M and V.
B) M and P.
C) V and P.
D) V and Y.
E) P and Y.

128) Suppose we are at the natural real GDP when the aggregate demand curve suddenly shifts downward. In Classical macroeconomics, the price level would _________, and real output would _________________.
A) remain unchanged, also remain unchanged
B) remain unchanged, fall below natural real GDP until the aggregate demand curve shifts back up
D) fall, fall below natural real GDP until the aggregate demand curve shifts back up

129) John Maynard Keynes revolutionized macroeconomics with the 1936 publication of his book
A) Macro-Economics.
B) The Wealth of Nations.
C) The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money.
D) Aggregate Economic Analysis.

130) Keynes held out the possibility of "monetary impotence" causing the aggregate demand curve to be _____________ below the natural real GDP, which results in an economy with ________ self-correction.
A) vertical, instant
B) vertical, no
C) horizontal, instant
D) horizontal, no

131) If autonomous spending does not respond to changes in the interest rate, the resulting _________ IS curve implies that an economy _____________ self-correct.
A) horizontal, will instantly
B) horizontal, can fail to
C) vertical, will instantly
D) vertical, can fail to

132) Keynes discussed the possibility of a horizontal LM curve, which causes a ______________, thus the possibility of ________________.
A) vertical AD curve, monetary impotence
B) vertical AD curve, an escape from monetary impotence
C) horizontal AD curve, monetary impotence
D) horizontal AD curve, an escape from monetary impotence

133) Suppose an economy falls into a recession. The central bank responds by rapidly increasing the money supply. Best for the central bank is the case where
A) a vertical IS curve produces the largest possible reduction in the interest rate as LM shifts to the right.
B) a vertical IS curve allows the interest rate to remain constant while real output rises back to the natural real GDP.
C) a vertical IS curve allows real GDP to remain constant while the interest rate falls.
D) a downward-sloping IS curve causes both the interest rate and real GDP to fall.
E) a downward-sloping IS curve causes a falling interest rate to stimulate consumption and investment demand.

134) The possibility that an economy in recession may be afflicted by monetary impotence led Keynes and his followers to recommend
A) raising real balances by letting the price level fall rather than increasing the nominal money supply.
B) raising real balances by increasing the nominal money supply rather than waiting for the price level to fall.
C) an active fiscal policy to shift the IS and AD curves.
D) waiting for a falling price level to activate the real balance effect on the IS and AD curves.

135) In the case of monetary impotence without a horizontal LM curve, a rise in government expenditures
A) just causes us to move further down the vertical IS curve and so is of no help in raising output.
B) shifts the LM curve downward against a horizontal IS curve and so is of no help in raising output.
C) shifts the vertical IS curve to the right and thus increases output.
D) causes the IS curve to go from vertical to downward-sloping, thus raising output.

136) The "Pigou effect" is the stimulus to aggregate demand when a lower price level causes
A) a lower interest rate to increase fixed investment.
B) a lower interest rate to increase inventory investment.
C) a lower interest rate to increase the demand for consumer durables.
D) holdings of money to increase in purchasing power, thus raising consumption demand.

137) In the case of "unresponsive expenditures," the operation of the Pigou effect
A) shifts the LM curve downward, raising output.
B) shifts the LM curve downward, but fails to affect output.
C) shifts the IS curve rightward, but since that curve is vertical this has no effect on output.
D) shifts the IS curve rightward, raising output.
E) steep, weakening

138) If falling prices cause an expectation of even lower prices in the future, this argues for a relatively ________ AD curve, thus __________ the Pigou effect.
A) steep, weakening
B) steep, intensifying
C) flat, weakening
D) flat, intensifying

139) Falling prices tend to redistribute income from ___________, which plausibly ________ the Pigou effect.
A) debtors to creditors, reinforces
B) debtors to creditors, weakens
C) creditors to debtors, reinforces
D) creditors to debtors, weakens

140) Regarding the theoretical operation of the Pigou, expectations, and redistribution effects, does the U.S. experience between 1929 and 1933 provide any evidence?
A) Since the price level did not fall, no evidence is provided.
B) Only the Pigou effect appears to have operated.
C) The Pigou effect appears to have overwhelmed the other effects.
D) All three effects appear to have helped cushion the fall in output.
E) The expectations and redistribution effects appear to have overwhelmed the Pigou effect.

141) The combination of the Keynes, Pigou, expectations, and redistribution effects results in an economy that self-corrects given a sufficiently low price level, when the four effects give rise to an AD curve that is
A) vertical.
B) downward-sloping and that stays to the left of LAS.
C) downward-sloping and that intersects LAS.
D) downward-sloping and that stays to the right of LAS.

142) Keynes said that even should monetary impotence not occur, full self-correction could be short-circuited by
A) the price level failing to fall sufficiently due to downwardly-rigid wages.
B) the price level failing to fall sufficiently due to continuously falling wages.
C) the price level falling too much due to downwardly-rigid wages.
D) the price level falling too much due to continuously falling wages.

143) Keynes stressed that a downwardly-rigid nominal wage
A) causes monetary impotence.
B) eliminates monetary impotence.
C) allows an economy to self-correct despite monetary impotence.
D) allows self-correction to fail without monetary impotence.

144) If the current AD curve intersects the LAS curve at a positive price level, can self-correction be thwarted?
A) No: it is inevitable.
B) Yes: via the Pigou effect.
C) Yes: via downwardly-rigid wages.
D) Yes: via monetary impotence.

145) The first two years of the Great Depression were dominated by
A) leftward shifts of the IS curve.
B) rightward shifts of the IS curve.
C) leftward shifts of the LM curve.
D) rightward shifts of the LM curve.
E) upward shifts of the SAS curve.

146) The most accurate capsule summary of the Great Depression in terms of the AD/SAS/LAS model is that
A) we slid down an AD curve from 1929 to 1933, then down 1933's SAS curve for the rest of the decade.
B) we slid down an AD curve from 1929 to 1933, then back up the same curve for the rest of the decade.
C) we went up an AD curve from 1929 to 1933, then came back down it for the rest of the decade.
D) AD and SAS shifts in unison took us straight to the left from 1929 to 1933, then back straight to the right for the rest of the decade.

147) What was the behavior of nominal wages in the 1930s?
A) They remained virtually constant, justifying the assumption of nominal wage rigidity.
B) They fell tremendously, just as Classical macroeconomics predicts.
C) They fell a bit at first, but then rose even as output remained far below natural real GDP.
D) They rose throughout the decade, just as Keynesian macroeconomics predicts.

148) Which of the following statements regarding the Japanese deflation which began in 1992 is incorrect?
A) The growth rate of nominal GDP has fallen dramatically.
B) The growth rate of real GDP has remained fairly stable.
C) The GDP deflator has fallen significantly.
D) All of the above.

149) Gordon suggests that the Japanese deflation is bad because it is caused by
A) too high a rate of technological progress.
B) a downward shift in the short-run aggregates supply schedule.
C) a contraction in aggregate demand.
D) B and C

150) A bad deflation such as that experienced by Japan over the past decade poses problems
A) for monetary policy because it lowers the real interest rate below the nominal interest rate.
B) for fiscal policy because it raises the ratio of public debt to nominal GDP even if public debt is fixed.
C) for monetary and fiscal policy because it makes it impossible to use these together to shift the IS and LM curves rightward at the same time.
D) for monetary and fiscal policy because it makes it impossible to use these together to shift the IS and LM curves leftward at the same time.