BME 301 Name:
Practice Exam 3
April 24, 2004
The exam consists of 12 questions. Show all work to receive credit. Good Luck!
Problem 1 (5):
Problem 2 (10):
Problem 3 (10):
Problem 4 (10):
Problem 5 (10):
Problem 6 (5):
Problem 7 (10):
Problem 8 (5):
Problem 9: (10):
Problem 10 (5):
Problem 11 (10):
Problem 12 (10):
1. Name three risk factors for cardiovascular disease that were discussed in class.
Any three of the following:
Low levels of physical activity
High blood pressure
2. When a sphygmomanometer is used to measure blood pressure, what two values are measured? Describe how the sphygmomanometer is used to perform these measurements.
The systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure are the values measured. The inflatable cuff is placed on the upper arm. The cuff pressure is increased until it is higher than the systolic pressure, so that blood flow into the arm stops. The pressure is gradually released by opening a valve. When the cuff pressure equals the systolic pressure, blood begins to flow and the Korotkoff sound associated with turbulent blood flow is heard with the stethoscope. When the cuff pressure equals the diastolic pressure, the artery is no longer compressed and the Korotkoff sound is no longer heard.
3. If a person’s cardiac output is 5.5 L/minute at a heart rate of 75 beats/minute, what is the stroke volume in mL? How many seconds will it take for this person’s entire 4.9-Liter volume of blood to be pumped through the heart?
CO = HR x SV
SV = CO/HR = (5.5 L/minute) / (75 beats/minute) = 0.073 L = 73 mL per beat
(4.9 L) / (5.5 L/minute) = 0.89 minutes = 53.5 seconds
4. Explain why it is important to consider “additive procedures” when analyzing the cost effectiveness of new medical technologies. Give a specific example that was discussed in class in which additive procedures influenced cost effectiveness.
A new technology may be used in addition to an existing procedure, rather than replacing it. Use of the new technology therefore may not lead to the overall cost savings that were originally anticipated. For example, among heart patients who have had PTCA, 20-40% have a second PTCA within 5 years, and 25% have CABG within 5 years. This reduces the cost savings advantage of PTCA over CABG.
5. What are the early warning signs of a heart attack? Why is it important to seek treatment quickly in the event of a heart attack? How do these signs differ from heart failure?
Chest discomfort, pain in the arms, jaw, or back, shortness of breath, cold sweat, nausea, or light-headedness can all be signs of a heart attack. By administering thrombolytics early, the effectiveness of the treatment is improved and less damage to the heart occurs from the blockage in the coronary artery. Heart failure is a chronic disorder, not an event. Gradually the symptoms of shortness of breath, chronic coughing or wheezing, edema, increased heart rate, confused thinking, lack of appetite, nausea, fatigue all may signal heart failure.
6. Why has the technology for assisting the heart focused on only one chamber: a left ventricular assist device and not, for example, a right atrial assist device?
Most of the force required to pump blood to the tissues is supplied by the left ventricle. The right side of the heart pumps to the lungs. The left side of the heart pumps to the rest of the body. The atria gather and pool blood whereas the ventricles are the forceful muscular areas of the heart that send the blood out great distances for gaseous exchange.
7. Compare and contrast the three major treatments for arteriosclerosis. Be sure to include in your discussion the outcomes and cost effectiveness for each treatment.
CABG - hospital stay long, restenosis rate low, cost high
Angioplasty – hospital stay short, restenosis rate high, cost low
Stent – hospital stay short, restenosis rate lower than angioplasty but higher than CABG, cost higher than angioplasty but lower than CABG
8. How are innovators such as Kurt Semm often viewed by others when introducing new technologies for health problems that replace treatments considered by leaders in the field as already successful?
Mavericks, weird, incautious, socially disconnected, risk takers who are often ridiculed publicly.
9. Suppose you are designing a clinical trial to compare whether an axial flow left ventricular assist device reduces the one year mortality rate associated with end stage heart failure compared to standard, larger LVADs. We wish to compare the one year mortality rate of our new axial flow rate (expected to be 10%) with that of an existing LVAD (expected to be 45%). We calculate a standardized difference of 0.75.
a. If you can tolerate a 20% risk of type II error and a 5% risk of type I error, how many patients are needed in the trial? Use the following figure to indicate how you got your answer. 55 patients
b. If you reduce the risk of type II error that can be tolerated to 1%, how does the sample size change? (Give a quantitative answer).
10. Contrast the rate of diffusion of the following two innovations: vitamin C to prevent scurvy in sailors, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
The use of vitamin C to treat scurvy took hundreds of years to diffuse, while laparoscopic cholecystectomy diffused very rapidly over a period of a few years.
11. Over the last 100 years, the role of the FDA in regulating drugs has changed significantly. Briefly describe the history of these changes.
Initially, the FDA only had the authority to remove products from the market if the FDA could prove that they were harmful and that the manufacturer was aware of this. In 1938, following the tragedy with sulfanilamide, manufacturers were required to notify the FDA before they marketed a new drug. However, the burden of proof to show that something was unsafe still rested with the FDA. In 1962, the law was changed to that manufacturers could not sell new drugs until they had provided the FDA with reputable scientific evidence that the new drug was both safe and effective. The burden of proof was now on the manufacturer to show that the new drug was safe. In 1976, similar rules were applied to the marketing of new medical devices. In short, we have shifted from reaction to tragedy to an attempt to prevent tragedy before it occurs.
12. Read the following article. Explain how after passing all the safeguards of preclinical testing, phases I-III of clinical trials, and required scrutiny of an FDA panel previously for a class III device, there could be problems such as these.
April 23, 2004
F.D.A. Seeks Reports of Stent Problems
By GINA KOLATA
The Food and Drug Administration is actively seeking reports of possible problems with a stent that came on the market last month, saying it has heard of serious medical complications in some cases.
But Dr. Daniel G. Schultz, director of the agency's office of device evaluation, said in a telephone interview on Tuesday that it was too soon to say whether there was a problem with the stent and, if so, what was causing it and what advice to give doctors and patients. The F.D.A. knows of 20 to 25 incidents, Dr. Schultz said, but the reports range from sketchy to highly detailed.
"We're fairly early in the process" of assessing the reports, Dr. Schultz said. "At this stage, our main goal is to gather more information."
The device's maker, Boston Scientific, says that its stent is safe and is performing excellently and that any problems are extraordinarily rare.
Paul LaViolette, senior vice president at the company, said more than 70,000 of the stents had been used in the United States since the device went on sale in March.
"We have to conclude, and I will say this with a lot of experience, that this product is performing extremely well," Mr. LaViolette said.
But a few cardiologists reported in telephone interviews that they got into trouble after the stent, a small wire tube used to hold open arteries, was slipped into place.
Like all stents, Boston Scientific's stent, the Taxus Express2, comes packaged with a deflated balloon inside. A cardiologist threads the stent with its balloon into an artery. When the site of the blockage is reached, the doctor inflates the balloon, pressing the stent against the artery wall. Then the balloon is deflated and the catheter and balloon withdrawn, leaving the stent flush against the artery, holding the vessel open.
Some doctors said the balloon stuck on the stent when they were removing it. Some were able to free the balloon; some were not. Dr. William Campbell, director of the cardiac catheterization laboratory at Borgess Heart Institute in Kalamazoo, Mich., said a patient was rushed into emergency open heart surgery to remove the balloon and stent.
Others, like Dr. Alejandro Prieto of Michigan State University, said that the balloon did not deflate and that he had to use a sharp wire to pop it. But then he also punctured the patient's artery.
"Those are serious problems," said Dr. Schultz, who said the F.D.A. had received similar reports.
Dr. Andrew Carter of Providence St. Vincent's Medical Center in Portland, Ore., said that while his medical center had used several hundred taxus stents without incident he was nonetheless worried.
"I have never had a balloon that did not deflate, or a device entrapment," he said, referring to balloons that got stuck on stents. "You would never expect to see it. Period."
Sometimes if an innovation diffuses too rapidly such as the case with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a learning curve is observed. The few physicians who use the innovation in a very controlled setting with a limited number of sites may have better results than when the innovation diffuses to a larger number of physicians in a wider range of settings. With over 70,000 of these stents used in the first month, it may not be unexpected to observe some problems not specifically due to the device. This is why the FDA mandates event reporting and evaluates the results in an ongoing effort to maintain public confidence in the safety and effectiveness of devices.
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