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# Units &amp; Conversions Fact Sheet - CNG fueling stations - kg to lb conversion table

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Derek Supple
MIT Energy Club
Units & Conversions Fact Sheet http://web.mit.edu/mit_energy
Prefixes Mass Distance Volume
Metric 1 kg = 2.205 lb 1 cm = 0.4 in 1 L = 0.264 gal = 1000 cm3 (ml)
ico (p) = 10-12 1 lb = 453.6 g = 16oz 1 m = 3.281 ft = 1.094 yd 1 m3 = 1000 L = 35.3 ft3 = 264 gal
nano (n) = 10-9 1 metric tonne = 1,000kg = 2,205lb 1 km = 0.62137 mi = 199 rod 1 gal = 3.785 L = 4 qt = 16 c = 128 oz
micro (?) = 10-6 1 US short ton = 907kg = 2,000lb 1 mi = 1.609km 1 ft3 = cf = 28.32 L = 7.482 gal
deca (da) = 101 1 UK long ton = 1,016kg = 2,239lb 1 smoot = 1.702 m = 5.83 ft 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gal = 159 L = 5.6 ft3
kilo (k) = 103
mega (M) = 106 Temperature Area 1 cord = 128 ft3 = 3.62 m3
giga (G) = 109 ?F = 1.8 ? ?C + 32 1 m2 = 10.765 ft2 1 ac-ft = 43560 ft3 = 325,851 gal
tera (T) = 1012 ?K = (?F - 32) ? 5/9 + 273.15 1 km2 = 0.386 mi2 = 106 m2 1 km3 = 0.24 mi3 = 810,713 acre-ft
peta (P) = 1015
exa (E) = 1018
Time 1 ha = 104 m2 = .01 km2 = 2.47 ac 1 bu = 4 pck = 8 gal = 35.2 L = 2,150 in3
zetta (Z) = 1021 3,600 sec/hour 730 hour/month 1 mi2 = 2.6 km2 = 640 ac Flow Rates
m
365.25 day/year 8,766 hour/year 1 ac = 4,047 m2 = 43,560 ft2 1mbd = 1 Mbbl/day = 15.34 Ggal/yr
Roman 31,536,000 sec/year Pressure = 694.4 bbl/min = 11.57 bbl/sec
= 103
mm = 106 Fuel Economy 1MPa = .1bar = 9.87atm = 145psi = 485.9 gal/sec
quad = 1015 1mpg = 0.4251 km/L 1atm = 1.0132 bar = 760 mmHg 1 ft3/s = 641 bbl/hr = 449 gal/min (gpm)
mpg = 235.2/ L/100 km = 14.696 psi = 10.33 ton/m3 1 bbl oil/day 50 metric ton oil/yr
1 gpm = 0.063 L/s = 0.00442 ac-ft/day
Energy Unit Conversion Density
1 J = 1 Nm = 1 kgm2/s2 = 0.239 cal = 0.74 ft-lb Water = 1 g/cm3 = 1 g/ml = 1 kg/L = 1 metric tonne/m3
1 Cal = 1 kcal = 1000 cal = 4.187 KJ = 3.968 Btu Air at Sea Level = 1.2 kg/m3
1 KJ = 0.239 Cal = 0.947817 Btu 0.95 Btu Crude Oil = 0.88 (0.75 -0.98) kg/L = 7.34 lb/gal = 140 kg/bbl
1 Btu = 1,055.056 J = 0.252 kcal Gasoline = 0.745 kg/L = 6.22 lb/gal
1 kWh = 3.6 MJ = 3,412 Btu; (1MWh = 3.6 GJ = 3.412 mmBtu) Diesel = 0.837 kg/L = 7.00 lb/gal; Biodiesel = 0.880 kg/L
1 mmBtu = 106 Btu = 1.055 GJ = 1 decatherm Ethanol = 0.789 kg/L = 6.58 lb/gal
1 mcf nat. gas (LHV) = 10.27 therm = 1.027 mmBtu = 1.082 GJ Methanol = 0.792 kg/L = 6.61 lb/gal
1 toe = 41.868 GJ = 39.683 mmBtu = 11.63 MWh = 7.33bbl Nat. Gas = 0.717 kg/m3 = 44.8 lb/mft3
1 tce = 29.308 GJ = 27.778 mmBtu = 8.141 MWh CNG @ 20MPa= 0.185 kg/L = 11.5 lb/ft3 = 5.66 lb/gge
1 Quad = 1015 Btu = 1.055 EJ = 293 TWh = 25.2 Mtoe=.974 TCF LPG (propane) = 0.540 kg/L = 33.7 lb/ft3
1 EJ = 109 GJ = 1018 J = .95 Quad Hydrogen = 0.025 kg/L (35MPa); 0.08988 kg/m3 (STP)
1 TWyr = 31.5 EJ = 29.86 Quad Coal 1.32 kg/L = 1230 metric ton/ha-m = 1800 sht ton/acre-foot
Energy Content (Lower Heating Values) (ton = metric tonne) API Gravity = (141.5/[Density in g/cm3 at 60 ?F]) - 131.5
Crude Oil = 6.119 GJ/bbl = 5.8 mmBtu/bbl = 39.7 mmBtu/ton Light Crude API > 31.1?; Heavy API < 22.3?; Bitumen API ~ 8?
= 145.7 MJ/gal = 38.5 MJ/L = 43.8 MJ/kg (GJ/ton) Power Unit Conversion
Gasoline = 121.3 MJ/gal (= 32.1 MJ/L = 43.1 MJ/kg = 115 mBtu/gal) 1 W = 1 J/s = 3.6 kJ/hour = 31.5 MJ/year
Diesel = 135.5 MJ/gal (= 35.8 MJ/L = 42.8 MJ/kg = 128 mBtu/gal) 1 kW = 1.341 hp = 738ft-lb/s
Biodiesel = 124.8 MJ/gal (= 33.0 MJ/L = 37.5 MJ/kg = 121 mBtu/gal) 1 hp = 745.7 W = 0.7068 Btu/s
Ethanol = 80.2 MJ/gal (= 21.2 MJ/L = 26.9 MJ/kg = 76 mBtu/gal) 1 TW = 1012 W = 31.5 EJ/year
Methanol = 60.4 MJ/gal (= 15.9 MJ/L = 20.1 MJ/kg = 57 mBtu/gal) 1 ton-refrigeration = 12,000 Btu/hr = 200 Btu/min = 3.517 kW
UN Standard Coal = 30 GJ/ton Historic US Retail Prices (US2000\$/GJ)
Bituminous = 27-30 GJ/ton (MJ/kg) = 25-28 mmBtu/ton 60
Sub-Bitum. = 20-26 GJ/ton (MJ/kg) = 19-24 mmBtu/ton 45
Lignite = 10-19 GJ/ton (MJ/kg) = 9-18 mmBtu/ton
Nat Gas @ STP = 53.2 MJ/kg =38.2 MJ/m3 = 1027 Btu/ft3 30
CNG @ 20 MPa = 50.0 MJ/kg = 9.3 MJ/L = 249.6 mBtu/ft3 15
H2 @ 35MPa (HHV) =120.0 MJ/kg = 2.7 MJ/L = 72.5 mBtu/ft3 0
LPG @ 1.5 MPa = 88.1 MJ/gal = 23.3 MJ/L = 625.5 mBtu/ft3
Air-Dried Wood(20% Moisture Content) = 15 GJ/ton Crude Oil
Uranium = 80 GJ/g fissioned = 400 GJ/kg mined (fn'd =.5% mn'd) Bituminous Coal
Natural Gas
CNG
Gasoline
Ethanol
Hydrogen
Electricity Ind.
Electricity Res.
Energy of Familiar Phenomena/Society Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission Factors
Quart of Boiling Water = 3 MJ 1 wooden match = 1 Btu Note: 44/12 or 3.667 ton CO2 emissions per ton C emissions
Melt 1 lb Ice = 151 kJ = 143 Btu Natural Gas = 121 lb/mcf = 117.1 lb/mmBtu = 50.3 kg/GJ
1-GWe Plant running 24 hrs = 260 TJ Gasoline = 19.56 lb/gal = 156.4 lb/mmBtu = 67.2 kg/GJ
Daily Human Metabolism = 2500 kCal/day = 120 W Diesel = 22.38 lb/gal = 161.4 lb/mmBtu = 69.4 kg/GJ
Compact Passenger Car at steady 60 mph: Bt. Coal = 4,931 lb/sht ton = 205.3 lb/mmBtu = 88.3 kg/GJ
Chem. Energy Consumption = 70 kW = 94 hp Petrol Coke = 32.40 lb/gal = 225.1 lb/mmBtu = 96.8 kg/GJ
Mech. Energy Production = 15 kW = 20 hp Electric US Av = 1.34 lb/kWh = 0.608 ton/MWh = 168.8 kg/GJ
'05 US Oil Use = 20.55 Mbpd = 7.506 Gbbl/yr = 238 bbl/sec Coal-fired Elec = 2.095 lb/kWh = .95 kg/kWh = 260 kg C/MWh
'05 Global Oil Use = 84.37 Mbpd = 31.89 Gbbl/yr = 976.5 bbl/sec Global Warming Potential (GWP) ( = 100yr)
'05 US Primary Energy Use 3.35 TW 105 EJ/yr 100 quad/yr CO2 = 1 CH4 = 23 N2O = 296 SF6 = 22,200
'05 Global 16 TW 504 EJ/yr 480 quad/yr
Solar Influx at Earth Surface 100 PW = 3.1 YJ/yr = 200 W/m2 HFCs = 12 - 12,000 PFCs = 5,700 - 11,900
\$/GJ
Rules of Thumb
? 1 Btu = 1,055 J ? 1 gallon gasoline equivalent (gge) =
? 1 kWh = 3.6 MJ = 3,412 Btu 121 MJ = 115,000 Btu = 1 kg H2 = 1.5 gal EtOH
? 1 hp = 746 W ? 1 million barrel oil per day (mbd) =
486 gal/sec = 2.2TJ/yr = 4232 metric ton C/yr
? 1 TW 30 Quad/yr 32 EJ/yr ? 3.667 (44/12) ton CO2 per ton C
? 1 Quad = 1015 Btu 1.05 EJ 25 Mtoe 300TWh 0.974 tcf natural gas
Sources
This sheet was compiled based on several other useful fact sheets and online resources:
? Holdren, J. and H. Lee (2006) ENR302 Course Notes: "Some Units Constants, and Conversions" and "Energy of Familiar
Phenomena"
? International Energy Agency (IEA) Energy Statistics Unit Converter
http://www.iea.org/Textbase/stats/unit.asp
? U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA). Kid's Page Energy Calculator
http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/science/energy_calculator.html
? BP plc, Statistical Review of World Energy 2006, Conversion Factors
http://www.bp.com/conversionCalculator.do?&contentId=7017990&categoryId=91
? EIA AER "Other Physical Conversion Factors"
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec13_13.pdf
? DOE Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) Fuel Properties Table
http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/pdfs/fueltable.pdf
? Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) Bioenergy Program, Conversion Factor Reference
http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/energy_conv.html
? United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) "Regional Study on Wood Energy Today and Tomorrow"
http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/W7744E/w7744e07.htm
? ICF Consulting (1999) "Emission Factors, Global Warming Potentials, Unit Conversions, Emissions, and Related Facts."
North Caroline Department of Environment, Division of Pollution Prevention. www.p2pays.org/ref/07/06861.pdf
Other Physical Property (LHV, Density, Emission Factor) Data Sources
? Wang, Michael Q. (2006) "The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET)
Model." Version 1.7. http://www.transportation.anl.gov/software/GREET/index.html
? Farrell, A.E. et al. (2005) EBAMM Release 1.0. http://rael.berkeley.edu/ebamm/
? Brown, D., J. Gillette, B. James, et al. (2006) Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) Project model version 1.0.11, "Physical Property
Data" http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/h2a_production.html
? Weiss, M. A., J. B. Heywood, et al. (2000). "On the Road in 2020, a Life-Cycle Analysis of New Automobile
Technologies." Cambridge, MA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Energy Laboratory. MIT EL 00-003 RP.
http://lfee.mit.edu/public/el00-003.pdf
? Hong, B.D. and E.R. Slatick (1994) "Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal." Energy Information Administration,
Quarterly Coal Report. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/co2_article/co2.html
? EIA, Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, Fuel and Energy Source Codes and Emission Coefficients
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/factors.html
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/gg97rpt/appb.html
? IPCC (2001). Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment
Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Houghton, J.T., Ding, Y., Griggs, D.J., Noguer, M., van der
Linden, P.J., Dai, X., Maskell, K. and Johnson, C.A. (eds.)]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 881pp.
Technical Summary. Section C6. p.47 . http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/020.htm#c6
Historic Price Range Data Sources
? EIA (2006) Annual Energy Review 2005 and Monthly Energy Review http://www.eia.doe.gov/overview_hd.html
? EIA Petroleum Navigator http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_top.asp
? EIA Coal News and Markets http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/coalnews/coalmar.html
? Bloomberg Energy Market Data http://www.bloomberg.com/energy/
? State of Nebraska Energy Statistics http://www.neo.state.ne.us/statshtml/66.html

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