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Distraction – Also referred ... - managerial economics ppt for mba



TEXAS CTE LESSON PLANwww.txcte.org Lesson Identification and TEKS AddressedCareer ClusterBusiness Management and AdministrationCourse NameBusiness ManagementLesson/Unit TitleManagerial CommunicationsTEKS Student Expectations130.139. (c) Knowledge and Skills(6) The student demonstrates the qualities of leadership (L) The student is expected to explain the concept of employee perception (M) The student is expected to analyze the communication process (N) The student is expected to compare and contrast formal and informal communication (O) The student is expected to explain how to improve communication within an organizationBasic Direct Teach Lesson(Includes Special Education Modifications/Accommodations and one English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategy)Instructional ObjectivesDescribe the differences between formal and informal communication structures.Understand the differences between traditional and contemporary forms of communication.Understand the appropriate types of communication in various situations.Students will understand the importance of effective workplace communication.RationaleThe main purposes of this lesson are to help students understand the following concepts:the effects of using proper business communication;the barriers to effective communication; andcommunication tools used today.Duration of LessonWhen taught as written, this lesson should take approximately four to five days to teach.Word Wall/Key Vocabulary(ELPS c1a,c,f; c2b; c3a,b,d; c4c; c5b) PDAS II(5)Communication – The exchange of information or ideas among two or more people.Interpersonal communication – Exchanging ideas or information face‐to‐face.Encode – To translate a message into words.Decode – To interpret a sent message.Feedback – A response to a message.Medium – The method of communication delivery, such as spoken or written.Distraction – Also referred to as noise; anything that interrupts or interferes with the message being sent.Distortion – The way a message can be changed as it is transmitted, can be consciously or unconsciously.Formal communication – Flows in a downward, upward, or lateral pattern and uses more traditional communication methods.Informal communication – Usually flows across groups; known as the “grapevine;” and typically uses more contemporary communication methods.Synchronous – Real‐time communication.Asynchronous – Communication where the parties are not communicating at the same time.Telecommuting – Working from a location other than the office.Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed?Textbook?Lesson Presentation?Instructor Computer/Projection Unit?WebsitesAnticipatory Set(May include pre-assessment for prior knowledge)Ask students how they best communicate with othersAsk students how they prefer someone else to communicate with themDirect Instruction *Goals of Effective Communication (NOTE: Ask students what communication goals should be in their lives. Examples may be so they can understand a concept at school or they can communicate to their parents about something they would like to do. What could happen if there is miscommunication in their lives?)Communicate a company’s visionEmpowers employees to meet goalsEnhances teamworkThe Communication Process (NOTE: Ask what results of miscommunication at work could be. Answers may include lost sales, work‐related accidents, or employees losing their jobs.)SenderMessageReceiverFeedbackForms of CommunicationVerbal – spoken languageNon‐verbal – gestures, posture, facial expression, eye contact, body languageOral – speeches, presentation Written – includes manual and electronic or digital communicationEmployee Perceptions (NOTE: Perceptions can contribute to how individuals understand each other. Ask students to think of a time when they made an assumption about someone based upon how they were dressed or how they spoke. Have them share ideas with a neighbor. Then ask them the same question but about a business situation, such as, when a business sends a grand opening invitation in the mail with typos. What would they assume about that business?)Customers – pleasant and welcoming employees create a positive perception for customersOther employees – stereotypes can cause misunderstandings at workManagement – dress and appearance can create value judgments regarding authority and create erroneous perceptionsEffective communication- critical to developing positive perceptionsCommunication Barriers (NOTE: Explain what a communication breakdown is and ask students when they have witnessed a breakdown at school, at home, on a playing field, or any other situation.)Lack of feeling of being able to provide honest communication – fear of reprimandingVagueness in the intent of the communication – different meanings for different phrasesCommunication can get lost – due to too much information being transmittedSelective hearing – distorted communicationNon‐verbal and verbal messages saying different things – usually non-verbal is followedDistractions – interruptions that can affect a sender’s ability to send his/her message or a receiver’s ability to hear or interpret a message. (NOTE: Ask students to think of the three biggest distractions to their communication. Have a student volunteer to write them on the board and tally what each student says.) Tips to Overcome Barriers (NOTE: Ask students if they are aware of their own body language. Do they have certain gestures or facial expressions when they speak? Ask students in pairs to take two minutes to tell each other about the last vacation they went on or the last movie they saw. Afterward, have them list the gestures, facial expressions, or other nonverbal behaviors they exhibited during the two minutes.)Make your message clear before you communicate itThink of your audience for appropriate wording as you plan your messageUse face‐to‐face communication when possiblePresent your message in an organized mannerAsk for employee feedbackVisit with employees throughout the officeBe truthful with employeesThe Importance of Listening (NOTE: Ask students how they can tell if they are not being listened to. Ask them what cues show that someone isn’t listening? Ask students to think about how much time they use the different forms of communication in a typical day. Have them record approximate percentages on a pie chart that they can draw. Do their percentages change from a school day to a weekend day?)Listening – 45%Speaking – 30%Writing – 16%Reading – 9%ListeningManagers and employees must listen to each otherEmployees must also listen to each otherEmployees and customers must listen to each otherReasons for Poor Listening (NOTE: Ask students if they think of themselves as a good listener. Read students a list of 10 words. Then tell them to write down as many as they can remember. While this is slightly different than listening for understanding, it is a quick reality check of their listening skills.)We probably have not been trained to listen wellWe speak slower than we think, so it is easy to become distractedWe only retain a fraction of what we hearThe older we get, the less effective our listening skills areListening TipsIdentify the speaker’s purposePay attention to the details of the messageIdentify the conclusions of the messageObserve the non‐verbal clues for hidden meanings behind messagesCommunication Delivery (NOTE: Write several situations on the board and have several informal groups in the classroom discuss which type of communication delivery would best be suited for the situation. Examples of scenarios are inquiring as to why an employee has so many absences, announcing a meeting for the following week, or steps for budget item requests. Discuss the type of delivery (for example, email, in person, memo, or other method) and whether it is formal or informal.)TraditionalPaperFace-to-FaceTelephoneContemporarySocial media (NOTE: Discuss if students think using forms of social media is a good idea (or not) in business.)Online discussion forumsComputerFormal Communication StructuresTypically flows in an official pattern of downward, upward, and lateralMemos, reports, manuals, e‐ mailsInformal Communication StructuresUsually unofficially across groups, known as the “grapevine” (NOTE: Ask students if they know how the “grapevine” is actually used in business. What are the advantages and disadvantages?) Text messaging, interpersonal (face‐to‐face), social mediaFormal/Informal Examples (NOTE: Provide students with the following scenarios and have them volunteer which delivery method (or document type) or structure is most appropriate: rumors of an increase in pay, notification to customers who are 90 days behind, making an appointment for car repair, or notice of new store hours.)OralFormal-Conducting an interviewInformal- talking casually with employees about an upcoming company eventWritten (NOTE: Tell students that many times information that should be in writing either involves more detail or will be part of a company’s records. Mention some examples and ask students if certain scenarios should be oral or written communication. Some examples include new procedures for requesting vacation time (W), demonstrating a new product (O), upcoming price changes (W), or a problem‐ solving idea (O).)Formal- letters, reportsInformal- company blog, posting to social network sitesNon-verbalFormal- sitting up straight in a meeting, eye contact, standing with weight on both legsInformal- slouching in a chair or sitting comfortably, shifting weight from one leg to the other while standingCommunication tools (NOTE: Ask students if they are familiar with the term telecommuting. Many major corporations, as well as smaller companies, have employees who work from a location other than the office, creating a need for even more communication tools than ever before.) (NOTE: Ask students which of the tools at the left that they are familiar with and the ones they prefer.)Synchronous – at the same timeTeleconferencing, audio and videoChatInstant messagingOnline application sharingWebinarsTelephoneAsynchronous – not at the same timeDiscussion boardsBlogsStreaming audio and videoPolls, surveysOnline trainingE‐mailCross‐Cultural Communication (NOTE: Explain to students that in addition to the increase in telecommuting, is also the increase in global business. With this increase comes the importance of understanding cross‐cultural communication issues. Non‐verbal cues are more important with different cultures. Have students search for different non‐verbal gestures in other countries and demonstrate them while other students guess their meaning.) Culture – communication issues can arise from differences in valuesLanguage – language training offered by businesses, approximately 20% is lost in translationNon‐verbal – many differences in non‐verbal gestures and customs in other countries, differences in meanings can cause miscommunicationGuided Practice *To demonstrate an example of interpersonal communication, have the students form groups based on what their birth month is. Groups will most likely be different sizes. Have them learn each other’s names and one interesting fact about each person. The groups will take turns introducing a member of their group to the class as well as their interesting fact. After the activity is completed, ask students if this activity was easy or if there was anything that made it difficult for them to concentrate on what their group members were saying (listening). Then write on the board or document camera the terms noise, distortion, and distraction. Define each as students provide examples of how those terms affected their communication.Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience/Differentiated Activities *Have students go to bls.gov and search for communication careers. Once they locate a career, have them list 10 items in the What They Do section and any other sections relating to communication.Lesson ClosureAsk students the following questions on exit tickets.Question #1:What are four components in the communication process?Answer #1:The four components are the sender, the message, the receiver, and the feedback.Question #2:Which type of communication is done the most?Answer #2:Listening is done approximately 45% of the time.Question #3:What is contemporary communication delivery?Answer #3:Contemporary includes communicating through social media and other electronic methods.Question #4:The grapevine is considered what type of communication structure?Answer #4:The grapevine is an information communication approach.Question #5:What is the difference between synchronous and asynchronous communication?Answer #5:Synchronous is real‐time communication while asynchronous is communication that may not take place at the same time as who you are communicating with.Summative / End of Lesson Assessment *Informal AssessmentThe following can be used as informal assessments:Exit tickets with vocabularyPair‐share activitiesClass discussion and participationFormal AssessmentThe following can be considered a formal evaluation:Formal/Informal Communication Assignment #1 – After reviewing the different types of communication, formal and informal, have students create a document that matches up at least five different jobs to these two different types of communication that would be most frequently used in those jobs. Students may locate jobs on bls.gov or other Internet sites with job openings.Listening Report Assignment #2 – Have students visit the University of Missouri website listed in the References section. Have them review the list of the 10 listening habits. Students will create a one‐ page report describing a situation where they followed one or more of the poor habits listed. The situation can be a lecture in school, a discussion at a part‐time job, a story another student was telling, or any other situation where listening was the main activity of the student. The report should follow proper writing conventions, explain the situation, identify the pertinent habit(s), and describe the actions they can take in the future to improve the negative habits.International Communication Summary Assignment #3 – Students are to assume the role of manager of an IT (Information Technology) department of a large corporation. There are several employees who work in different countries. You would like to arrange a regular weekly meeting with your team. Select three countries where your employees are located and explain the issues you need to address to arrange a meeting, including time zones, customs, and other problems that may arise for each member. Address synchronous and asynchronous communication and explain how you resolve the issue and the meeting day, time, and communication medium you have selected. Students may display their information in a one‐page report, diagram, or other method that fully explains the topic.References/Resources/Teacher Preparationhttp://extension.missouri.edu/p/CM150Business Principles and Management, South‐Western Publishing, 2001Business Management, South‐Western Publishing, 2013Additional Required ComponentsEnglish Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies.College and Career Readiness ConnectionEnglish‐English I110.31(b)(1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing.110.3(b)(11) Reading/Comprehension of informational text/procedural texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents.Math‐Algebra I111.32(b)(1)(C) Interpret and make decisions, predictions, and critical judgments from functional relationships.Social Studies‐World Geography113.34(c)(20)(A) Describe the impact of new technologies, new markets, and revised perceptions of resources.Recommended StrategiesReading StrategiesQuotesMultimedia/Visual StrategyPresentation Slides + One Additional Technology ConnectionGraphic Organizers/HandoutWriting StrategiesJournal Entries + 1 Additional Writing StrategyCommunication90 Second Speech TopicsOther Essential Lesson ComponentsEnrichment Activity(e.g., homework assignment)Have students interview an employee, manager, or owner of a business, and ask them the percentages of types of communication they typically use in their business. For example, if it is a restaurant, they will typically use at least 70% verbal communication, while an office employee may use only 30% verbal and more written communication. Report your findings to the class.Family/Community ConnectionCTSO connection(s)Business Professionals of AmericaFuture Business Leaders of AmericaService Learning ProjectsLesson Notes