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Chapter 1 Study Questions with Answers - Jones & Bartlett … - positive sugar pregnancy test

Answers to Study Questions
Chapter 1
1. Name three sensory aspects of food that influence our food choices.
Any three of the following: taste, smell, texture, appearance

2. How do our health beliefs affect our food choices?
Health beliefs are characterized by an individual's perception that he or she is susceptible to a disease and, if so, that action can be taken to prevent or delay its onset. People who feel susceptible to a disease are more likely to heed recommendations based on information about the links between dietary choices and the risk of that disease. They see that dietary changes may lead to positive results.

3. List the six classes of nutrients.
Carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water

4. List the 13 vitamins.
Fat-soluble: vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K
Water-soluble: thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamin (B12), folate, pantothenic acid, biotin, and vitamin C

5. What determines whether a mineral is a macromineral or a micro- (trace) mineral?
Macrominerals are found in and used by the body in the largest amounts. Microminerals are found in and used by the body in smaller amounts.

6. How many kilocalories are in 1 gram of carbohydrate, of protein, and of fat?
Carbohydrates have 4 kilocalories per gram; proteins have 4 kilocalories per gram; and fats have 9 kilocalories per gram.

7. What is an epidemiological study?
An epidemiological study observes and compares how disease rates vary among different population groups and identifies conditions related to diseases or conditions within the populations. This enables researchers to identify associations between factors within the population and the particular disease being studied.

8. What is the difference between an experimental and control group?
Subjects in the experimental group experience an intervention, while subjects in a control group have similar characteristics and are not treated. Specific elements of health or disease are measured and compared between the two groups.

9. What is a placebo?
A placebo is an imitation treatment that looks the same as the experimental treatment (such as a sugar pill) but has no effect. The placebo is important for reducing bias because subjects do not know if they are receiving the intervention and are less inclined to alter their responses or reported symptoms based on what they think should happen.

Chapter 2
1. Define undernutrition and overnutrition
Undernutrition is poor health resulting from the depletion of nutrients due to inadequate nutrient intake over time. It is most often associated with poverty, alcoholism, and some types of eating disorders.
The most common type of overnutrition in the United States is due to the regular consumption of excess calories, fats, saturated fats, and cholesterol.

2. What is the purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans? List the nine focus areas of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
The purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is to provide science-based advice to promote health and to reduce risk for chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. Recommendations for healthy Americans over the age of two are grouped under nine inter-related focus areas:
• Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs
• Weight Management
• Physical Activity
• Food Groups to Encourage
• Fats
• Carbohydrates
• Sodium and Potassium
• Alcoholic Beverages
• Food Safety

3. What are the recommended amounts for each of the food groups of MyPyramid for a 2,000-calorie diet?
Grains: 6 ounce-equivalents; half should be whole grains
Vegetable group: 2 ½ cups
Fruits: 2 cups
Milk: 3 cups
Meat and beans: 5 ½ ounce equivalents

4. Describe how the exchange system works and why people with diabetes might use it.
The exchange system divides foods into groups and assigns each food within a group a portion size comparable in calories and nutrients. A diet is planned by determining the number of servings from each exchange group that should be in each snack or meal. The individual decides whether he or she will use the fruit “exchange” for ½ cup of orange juice or 1 small banana; each of the foods in a group can be exchanged for another.
People with diabetes might use the exchange system because, if followed correctly, it can help them keep a consistent carbohydrate intake and keep their total calories in line with recommendations.

5. List and define the four main Dietary Reference Intake categories.
The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the needs of 50 percent of the individuals in a life-stage and gender group.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the daily intake level that meets the needs of most (97 to 98 percent) people in a life-stage and gender group.
An Adequate Intake (AI) level is set when an RDA has yet to be established due to a lack of knowledge and need for more scientific research.
The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the maximum daily intake level that is unlikely to pose health risks to almost all of the individuals in a life-stage and gender category.

6. List the five mandatory components found on all food labels.
statement of identity
net contents of the package
name and address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor
list of ingredients
nutrition information

7. The standard Nutrition Facts panel shows information on which nutrients?
Calories from fat
Total fat
Saturated fat
Trans fat
Total carbohydrate
Dietary fiber
Calcium, iron, vitamins A and C (all as a % Daily Value)

8. What is the purpose of the “% Daily Value” listed next to most nutrients on the label?
The % Daily Value reflects the amount of a nutrient in one serving of food compared to the amount recommended for a 2,000-kilocalorie diet. For example, if a food label lists 20% DV for saturated fat, it means that one serving of this food contains 20% of the Daily Value for saturated fat. Because the DV for saturated fat is 20 grams (for a 2,000-kilocalorie diet), this food would have 4 grams of saturated fat per serving (20% of 20 g = 4 g).

9. Define the three types of claims that may be found on food labels.
Nutrient content claims describe the level of a nutrient or dietary substance in the product using terms such as good source, high, or free.
A health claim is any statement that associates a food or a substance in a food with a disease or health-related condition.
A structure/function claim describes a benefit related to a nutrient-deficiency disease or describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient intended to affect a structure or function in humans; for example, calcium helps build strong bones.

Chapter 3
1. What are phytochemicals, and how do they benefit plants and humans?
Phytochemicals are plant chemicals, including pigments and antioxidants. They help plants resist bacteria and fungi, the destructive effects of free radicals, and high levels of UV sunlight. When we eat plants that contain phytochemicals, we receive many of the same protections.

2. Name three chronic diseases that consuming functional foods may help prevent.
Any three of the following: cancer, hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes. Consuming functional foods also may reduce the incidence of age-related macular degeneration and gastrointestinal disorders.

3. What purpose(s) do food additives serve?
Food additives may improve a food's nutritional value, maintain its palatability and consistency, provide leavening, control acidity or alkalinity, enhance flavor, or prevent spoilage.

4. What is the purpose of the Delaney Clause? What are the complications surrounding this food law?
The Delaney Clause prohibits the use of any food additive shown to cause cancer in animals or humans. Critics charge that the Delaney Clause, combined with modern detection techniques, has created a situation where even very pure foods can be shown to be contaminated with traces of a carcinogen. Proponents say that any risk for cancer, even if minimal, is still too high.

5. How do you know a product is a dietary supplement?
DSHEA defines dietary supplement as any product intended to supplement the diet, and it requires the word supplement to be clearly printed on the label.

6. If a dietary supplement product label contains the words “High in vitamin E,” what type of claim is it making? What other claims can a supplement make?
”High in vitamin E” is an example of a nutrient content claim. Two other claims can be made when appropriate: health claims and structure/function claims.

7. What things should someone do before purchasing supplements?
• Check the label for the USP-Verified mark, which indicates the manufacturer followed standards established by the U.S. Pharmacopeia.
• Remember that just because something is natural does not mean it is safe.
• Consider purchasing a supplement from one of the large, nationally known manufacturers because they generally have tighter quality controls.

8. What are some of the possible complications involved in using herbal medicines?
Because herbal supplements do not have to be approved prior to sale, their safety and efficacy has not been scrutinized by the FDA. Herbal medicines have the potential to interact with drugs and with nutrients. Such interactions could affect the strength of medications and the use of nutrients in the body. In addition, because herbal medicines are not regulated as drugs, there are no standards for purity. This leaves open the possibility that contaminants in the product could cause harmful effects.

9. What is a macrobiotic diet?
The traditional macrobiotic diet is a vegetarian diet that gets progressively more restrictive, with the "highest level" consisting of little more than brown rice and water. The diet has since evolved to a simpler one-level regimen based on whole-grain cereals and vegetables, a small amount of fish, and no other animal products and no fruit.

Chapter 4
1. List the organs (in order) that make up the GI tract.
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum.

2. Name the four “assisting” organs that are not part of the GI tract but are needed for proper digestion. What are their roles in digestion?
The salivary glands produce saliva that moistens food, lubricating it for easy swallowing. Saliva contains enzymes that begin the process of chemical digestion.
The liver produces and secretes bile, which emulsifies fats in the small intestine, thus aiding fat digestion.
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile from the liver.
The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes that help digest nutrients.

3. What substance makes the stomach contents acidic? What substance protects stomach cells from the low pH of stomach contents?
Hydrochloric acid produced by cells that line the stomach lowers the pH of the stomach contents to about 2.
Mucus, also produced by stomach lining cells, protects these cells from the acid environment.

4. Where in the GI tract does the majority of nutrient digestion and absorption take place?
Small intestine.

5. What two circulatory systems transport absorbed nutrients around the body?
Vascular system (blood circulatory system) and lymphatic system

6. What is gastroesophageal reflux disease?
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is weak or relaxes inappropriately, allowing the stomach's contents to flow back up into the esophagus. The acidic stomach contents irritate the esophageal lining, causing severe pain.

Chapter 5
1. What are the differences between a monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide?
A monosaccharide is a single sugar unit (e.g., glucose, fructose, and galactose). A disaccharide (e.g., maltose, sucrose, and lactose) is a molecule of two single sugar units. A polysaccharide (e.g., starch and fiber) is a long chain of sugar units.

2. What advantage does the branched-chain structure of glycogen provide compared to a straight chain of glucose?
The branched chain structure of glycogen provides many end units for enzymes to attack. Compared to a straight chain of glucose, this allows enzymes to break it down more quickly and rapidly release glucose.

3. Describe the difference between starch and fiber.
Both starch and fiber are long chains of glucose molecules, but we are unable to digest the bonds between the glucose units in fiber. Therefore, fiber moves through the small intestine undigested while starch is broken down into glucose and absorbed.

4. Which blood glucose regulation hormone is secreted in the fed state? The fasting state?
After we eat, our bodies secrete insulin that counteracts a rise in blood glucose by increasing the uptake of glucose by cells. When we have taken in no food for several hours, our bodies secrete glucagon. Glucagon helps maintain glucose levels by stimulating the breakdown of storage glycogen and the release of glucose to the blood.

5. Which foods contain carbohydrates?
Plant foods are our main dietary sources of carbohydrates. Grains, legumes, and vegetables provide starches and fibers. Fruits provide sugars and fiber. Milk and other dairy products provide sugar in the form of lactose. Sweets and soft drinks contain carbohydrates in the form of sugars.

6. What are the most common non-nutritive sweeteners used in the United States.
Saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K, sucralose

7. How will eating excessive amounts of added sugars affect health?
An excessive amount of added sugar probably translates into an excessive amount of calories, and overconsumption of calories leads to weight gain. Overweight and obesity are, in turn, associated with increased risk of chronic disease. Excess sugar intake also increases risk for dental caries.

8. List the benefits of eating more fiber. What are the consequences of eating too much? Too little?
The benefits of a high-fiber diet include
· bowel regularity
· reduced blood cholesterol
· increased feeling of fullness
· reduced risk of heart disease
· improved nutrient intake if fiber intake was increased by consumption of fruits and vegetables
The potential consequences of eating too much fiber include constipation or diarrhea, gas, bloating, calorie insufficiency (if you feel too full to eat adequately), and decreased mineral absorption. The consequences of getting too little fiber include increased risk for constipation, diverticulitis, and heart disease.

Chapter 6
1. What do the terms saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated mean with regard to fatty acids?
If all the bonds between the carbon atoms in a fatty acid chain are single bonds, then the fatty acid is called a saturated fatty acid. A fatty acid with one double bond in the fatty acid chain is a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA); one with two or more double bonds is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA).

2. What does the hardness or softness of a fat typically signify?
The fat's saturation. Typically, the harder a fat is at room temperature, the more saturated it is. Conversely, the softer a fat is at room temperature, the less saturated it is.

3. Name the two essential fatty acids.
Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid

4. What is the most common form of lipid found in food?
Triglycerides. Triglycerides contain a glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids. These fatty acids can vary in length and saturation.

5. List the many functions of triglycerides.
1. energy source (9 kilocalories per gram)
2. energy reserve (triglycerides in fat cells)
3. insulation and protection (visceral and subcutaneous fat)
4. carrier of fat-soluble compounds
5. contribute sensory qualities to foods

6. What are the positive and negative consequences of hydrogenating a fat?
The positive consequences of hydrogenation include a longer shelf life (protects against oxidation) and an improved texture for the food containing the hydrogenated lipid. The main negative consequence of hydrogenation is that it makes a fat more saturated, and partial hydrogenation creates trans fatty acids. This makes the fat less healthful.

7. Which foods contain cholesterol?
Only foods from animal sources contain cholesterol. Organ meats such as brain and liver contain very high levels. Other sources are egg yolks, meats, and dairy products.

8. Describe the difference between LDL and HDL in terms of cholesterol and protein composition.
LDL contains a high percentage of cholesterol (which makes its density low), while HDL contains a high percentage of protein (making it a higher density).
9. List the recommendations for intake of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.
Total fat: 20-35% of kilocalories
Saturated fat: less than 10% of kilocalories
Cholesterol: less than 300 milligrams per day

Chapter 7
1. Describe the differences among indispensable, dispensable, and conditionally indispensable amino acids.
Indispensable amino acids cannot be made in the body and must be obtained from the diet.
Dispensable amino acids can be manufactured in the body when enough nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are available.
Conditionally indispensable amino acids are amino acids that your body makes under normal circumstances, but when one has certain deficiencies and disorders the body can no longer produce them and they must be obtained from the diet.

2. List the functions of body proteins.
Structural and mechanical functions
Immune function
Acid-base balance
Transport functions
Fluid balance
Source of energy and glucose

3. How is protein related to immune function?
Antibodies are blood proteins that attack and inactivate bacteria and viruses that can cause infection. Each protein antibody has a specific shape that allows it to attack and destroy a specific foreign invader.

4. What is meant by nitrogen balance? Give examples of conditions associated with positive and negative nitrogen balance.
Nitrogen balance refers to the relationship between nitrogen intake and nitrogen output. Most healthy adults are in zero balance (nitrogen equilibrium). Positive nitrogen balance occurs during periods of growth, pregnancy, and recovery from illness. Negative nitrogen balance occurs during starvation, illness and injury.

5. What are complementary proteins? List three examples of food combinations that contain complementary proteins. Although the protein in one plant food may lack certain amino acids, the protein in another plant food may be a complementary protein that completes the amino acid pattern. So the protein in one plant food can provide the essential amino acid(s) that the other plant food is missing.
1) Beans and rice
2) Peanut butter on bread
3) Pasta with beans

6. Describe a vegan diet.
Vegans eat no animal-based foods and usually avoid cosmetics and other products made with animal-based ingredients.

7. List the potential health benefits of a vegetarian diet.
Vegetarian diets:
- contain less fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol
- contain vegetables and fruits high in antioxidants and that contain dietary fiber and phytochemicals.
- have lower blood cholesterol levels
- are less likely to develop heart disease
- have lower weight
- are less likely to have high blood pressure
- have lower rates of cancer

8. What health effects occur if you are protein deficient?
A deficiency of protein, energy, or both in the diet is called protein-energy malnutrition, or PEM. Severe PEM takes two forms:
Kwashiorkor: characterized by edema in the feet and legs, bloated belly due to edema and accumulation of fat in the liver, stunted height and weight, increased susceptibility to infection, dry flaky skin, skin sores, dry brittle hair, and changes in skin color.
Marasmus: develops more slowly than kwashiorkor and results from chronic PEM. Protein, energy, and nutrient intakes are all grossly inadequate, depleting body fat reserves and severely wasting muscle tissue, including vital organs like the heart. Growth slows or stops, and children are both short and very thin for their age. Metabolism slows and body temperature drops as the body tries to conserve energy. Children with marasmus are apathetic; their hair is sparse and falls out easily. Because muscle and fat are used up, a child with marasmus often looks like a frail, wrinkled, elderly person.

9. What health effects can occur over time from consuming too much protein?
Intake of too much protein may contribute to obesity, heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. These links, however, may be attributed to the high fat intake that often accompanies high protein intake.

Spotlight on Metabolism
1. What is the “universal energy currency”?
ATP is the energy form usable by all cells, so it is called the universal energy currency.

2. In the catabolic pathways, what two molecules accept electrons? Where are these electrons carried?
NAD+ and FAD+ are the electron acceptors in the breakdown pathways. As NADH and FADH2, these carriers transport high energy electrons to the electron transport chain where the electrons power the production of ATP.

3. What four pathways are involved in extracting energy from carbohydrate? Which of these pathways are anaerobic, and which are aerobic?
Glycolysis; anaerobic
Pyruvate to acetyl CoA; aerobic
Citric acid cycle; aerobic
Electron transport chain; aerobic

4. What molecule does beta-oxidation form from the two-carbon links it “clips” off a fatty acid chain? What else does beta-oxidation produce that is important to producing ATP?
Beta-oxidation (also called fatty acid oxidation) forms molecules of acetyl CoA as it clips two-carbon links from a fatty acid chain. It also produces NADH and FADH2, which carry high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain for ATP production.

5. What dictates whether an amino acid is considered glucogenic or ketogenic?
An amino acid is considered either glucogenic or ketogenic based on whether its carbon skeleton can be made into glucose or acetyl CoA. If an amino acid’s carbon skeleton can be converted to pyruvate or a citric acid cycle intermediate, it can follow gluconeogenic pathways to glucose. Such amino acids are glucogenic. If a carbon skeleton is converted to acetyl CoA, it cannot be made into glucose. It can, however, be made into a ketone body, so these amino acids are ketogenic.

6. What are ketone bodies, and when are they produced?
Ketone bodies are compounds (acetoacetate, acetone, and beta-hydroxybutyrate) made during incomplete fatty acid oxidation. Although some ketone bodies are always produced and used, they become a substantial alternative energy source when the body lacks carbohydrate and needs to fuel vital cells.

7. Name the three tissues where energy is stores. Which contains the largest store of energy?
Energy is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle tissues and as triglyceride in the adipose tissue. The largest store of energy is the adipose tissue.

8. Define gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Under what conditions do they predominantly occur? What are their primary inputs and outputs?
Gluconeogenesis is synthesis of glucose within the body from noncarbohydrate precursors such as amino acids, lactic acid, and glycerol. The liver is where it predominantly occurs.
Lipogenesis is the synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl CoA derived from the metabolism of fats, alcohol, and some amino acids. This occurs predominantly in cytosol.

Chapter 8
1. Explain the concept of energy balance.
Energy balance is the relationship between your energy intake and energy output. You are in energy equilibrium when your energy or caloric intake equals the amount of energy or calories you expend. People who maintain their weight over time are in energy equilibrium whether or not they are aware of their intake or expenditure. Positive energy balance (intake > output) results in weight gain while negative energy balance (intake < output) results in weight loss.

2. Define hunger, satiation, satiety, and appetite.
Hunger is the internal, physiological drive to find and consume food. Unlike appetite, hunger is often experienced as a negative sensation, often manifesting as an uneasy or painful sensation.
Satiation is the feeling of satisfaction and fullness that terminates a meal.
Satiety refers to the effects of a food or meal that delays subsequent intake. Satiety is the feeling of satisfaction and fullness following eating that quells the desire for food.
Appetite is a psychological desire to eat. It is related to the pleasant sensations often associated with food.

3. List and describe the three main components of energy expenditure.
· Resting Energy Expenditure: the energy expended while the body is at rest, which includes basic physiological functions such as heartbeat, muscle contraction, respiration, and so on.
· Thermic Effect of Food: the energy expended to digest, metabolize, and store ingested macronutrients.
· Physical Activity: the increase in metabolic rate caused by any movement of skeletal muscles.

4. Explain the three main factors that determine energy expenditure in activity.
The energy expended in physical activity depends on the activity's duration, type (e.g., walking, running, or typing), and intensity. Energy output increases the longer you perform an activity, the greater your use of large muscle groups (type of activity), and the more intensely you perform the activity.

5. What body mass index (BMI) values are associated with being underweight, overweight, and obese? Do these vary for men and women?
Underweight < 18.5 kg/m2
Overweight 25 to 29.9 kg/m2
Obese ≥ 30 kg/m2
These standards are the same for men and women.

6. Obesity is seen as a complex disorder with multiple contributing factors. List the general types of factors involved in the development and maintenance of obesity.
· Biological
· Environmental
· Lifestyle and behavior

7. What is the difference between hyperplastic and hypertrophic obesity?
Excess fat accumulation is associated with increased fat cell size, called hypertrophic obesity. In hypertrophic obesity, fat cells become larger than normal as they fill with fat. When the capacity of these cells reaches its maximum, the body generates more fat cells. Hyperplastic obesity is characterized not only by increased fat cell size but also increased cell number.

8. Describe the concept of metabolic fitness.
Some health experts advocate the replacement of goals to attain a particular weight with the goal of metabolic fitness, which is the absence of metabolic or biochemical risk factors associated with obesity. Individuals are considered metabolically fit when their blood lipids are at safe levels and their blood pressure is normal. Four suggested goals for metabolic fitness, from most to least aggressive are to (1) significantly reduce the risk factors, (2) restore abnormal risk factors to normal ranges, (3) reverse the “high normal” or “borderline” parameters, and (4) prevent risk factors in overweight individuals.

9. What are the four components of a sound approach to weight management?
· A balanced diet of moderate caloric intake
· Adequate exercise
· Cognitive-behavioral strategies for changing habits and behavior patterns
· Attention to balancing self-acceptance and the desire for change.

10. Explain how the ABCs of behavior modification can assist with weight control.
Antecedents, or the "A" part of the model, are the events that come first and either together or singly trigger a behavior. Overeating is often the behavior in question and is the "B" part of the model. The consequences, or "C," follow the behavior and serve to reinforce the "B." These Cs may be desirable (e.g., relief from stress) or undesirable (e.g., guilt about overeating). Some consequences occur immediately and some occur sometime in the future. The consequences that matter most in terms of reinforcing behavior are those that occur immediately.
An important aspect of changing behavior and eliminating overeating is to manage the environment through stimulus control. This involves identifying the antecedents---the cues that trigger or elicit the behavior---and learning to change or avoid such cues. Removing problem foods from the house or avoiding the candy aisle in the store are examples of stimulus control.
New behavior patterns, such as undertaking exercise, can be instituted by creating cues that will elicit the desired behavior. For example, putting exercise clothes by the door or scheduling an exercise session on the calendar can help get the behavior started. Similarly, using positive self-talk to encourage a new behavior and avoiding excuses and rationalizations to eat something inappropriate are examples of cognitive coping aimed at managing internal events.

11. Define “underweight.”
The term underweight is defined as a BMI of less than 18.5 kg/m2. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans defines underweight as a BMI lower than 19 kg/m2.

Chapter 9
1. Describe two differences between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins.
Fat-soluble vitamins first travel in the lymphatic system (inside chylomicrons) before entering the bloodstream.
Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed directly into the bloodstream.
Most fat-soluble vitamins are not readily excreted and are stored in the liver and adipose tissue.
Most water-soluble vitamins are readily excreted and stored in limited quantities.

2. What are the main roles of vitamin A in the body? What is an early sign of vitamin A deficiency?
Vitamin A is necessary for vision, cell differentiation, immune function, reproduction, and bone health. An early sign of vitamin A deficiency is night blindness.

3. What is vitamin D’s nickname? Why? Why is vitamin D also considered a hormone?
Vitamin D is called the "sunshine vitamin" because UV sunlight hitting the skin makes vitamin D from cholesterol. Like all hormones, vitamin D is made in one part of the body and acts elsewhere in the body.

4. What is vitamin E’s primary function and what are the best sources of vitamin E?
Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant. Nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils are good sources of vitamin E.

5. What is the best-known function of vitamin K?
Blood clotting

6. Which two fat-soluble vitamins potentially are the most toxic? Which two are the least toxic?
Vitamins A and D have the greatest potential to be toxic. Least toxic are vitamins E and K.

7. List the nine water-soluble vitamins and one main function for each.
Thiamin functions in energy metabolism as the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP). TPP helps in the breakdown of glucose, synthesis of RNA and DNA, and synthesis of neurotransmitters.
Riboflavin functions in energy metabolism as coenzymes that participate in reactions that break down glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids for energy.
Niacin coenzymes function in 200 metabolic pathways including pathways in energy metabolism and fatty acid synthesis.
Vitamin B6 functions in amino acid metabolism and in the synthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitters.
Folate is essential to the synthesis of DNA, and good folate status prevents some birth defects. Folate also helps lower homocysteine levels.
Vitamin B12 activates folate and maintains the myelin sheath that protects nerve fibers and supports red blood cell synthesis.
Pantothenic acid functions in energy metabolism as part of coenzyme A.
Biotin acts as a coenzyme critical to energy and amino acid metabolism, as well as in fatty acid synthesis.
Vitamin C is important in collagen synthesis, assists with absorption of iron, and is an antioxidant.

8. Name the diseases and/or characteristic symptoms of deficiencies of each water-soluble vitamin.
Thiamin – beriberi
Riboflavin – ariboflavinosis
Niacin – pellagra
Vitamin B6 – no disease name; a deficiency causes microcytic hypochromic anemia
Folate – no disease name; a deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia; low status during pregnancy increases risk for neural tube defects
Vitamin B12 – deficiency can result from pernicious anemia and cause megaloblastic anemia and permanent nerve damage
Pantothenic acid – no disease name; deficiency is extremely unlikely
Biotin – no disease name, a deficiency causes hair loss, poor growth, and neurological symptoms
Vitamin C – scurvy

9. List the water-soluble vitamins demonstrated to be toxic in large doses. What signs indicate toxic levels of each vitamin?
The only water-soluble vitamins with demonstrated toxicity are niacin, vitamin B6, and vitamin C. Excessive amounts of niacin can cause "niacin flush," nausea, headache, and blurred vision. Over time, liver damage can result. Excessive amounts of vitamin B6 can cause irreversible nerve damage, and excessive doses of vitamin C can cause abdominal cramps and diarrhea.

Spotlight on Alcohol

1. How much alcohol is in beer, wine, and liquor?
Most beer is up to 5% alcohol (some exceed 6%), wine is 8–14% alcohol, and liquor is typically 35–45% alcohol.

2. List the ways food helps to delay or avoid inebriation.
Food, especially if it contains fat, delays emptying of the stomach into the small intestine. The delay also provides a longer opportunity for oxidizing stomach enzymes to work. And food dilutes the stomach contents, lowering the concentration of alcohol and its rate of absorption. 

3. Where does alcohol metabolism take place?
The liver.

4. What causes a hangover? Is there any way to relieve one?
Possible contributing factors of a hangover include:
Dehydration, irritation of the stomach and intestines, electrolyte imbalance, low blood glucose levels, sleep disturbances, family history of alcoholism, use of other drugs, and compounds other than alcohol in beverages (especially the congener methanol). 
The following can help relieve a hangover:
Time: symptoms usually disappear in 8-24 hours
Complex Carbohydrates: combat low blood glucose and possibly nausea.
Sleep: ease fatigue
Non-alcoholic, non-caffeinated beverages: alleviate dehydration
Vitamin B6: taking it before drinking may reduce severity of symptoms
Antacids: may relieve nausea and stomach pains
Aspirin: may reduce headache and muscle aches but could increase stomach irritation.

5. List some factors that affect our ability to metabolize alcohol.
Body size and composition

6. Why do health care professionals advise pregnant woman not to drink alcohol?
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome. The severely effected victims of the syndrome have a variety of congenital defects: mental retardation, coordination problems, and heart, eye, and genitourinary malformations, as well as low birth weight and slowed growth rate. Most apparent are characteristic facial abnormalities.

7. List the positive and negative effects of alcohol.
Harmful effects of alcohol:
Accidents and violence
Birth defects
Emotional and social problems
Brain effects (acute and long term)
Liver disease
Peripheral neuropathy
Helpful effects of alcohol:
Raises protective HDL cholesterol levels
May inhibit formation of blood clots
Stress relief and relaxation
Protection against heart disease

Chapter 10
1. List the biological functions of water.
Water is needed to transport nutrients and wastes, provide shock absorption and lubrication, facilitate chemical reactions, and regulate body temperature.

2. What major minerals affect blood pressure?
High intake of sodium and chloride are associated with increased blood pressure. Increasing potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the diet, while lowering sodium and chloride intake, can help lower blood pressure.

3. What are the major functions of calcium, other than its relation to bone health?
Calcium is important for blood clotting, nerve function, muscle contractions, and cell metabolism.
When dietary intakes do not meet calcium needs, calcium is withdrawn from the bone to compensate, thus making the bone weaker and increasing the risk for the development of osteoporosis.

4. Explain the differences between “heme” and “non-heme” iron. Which is absorbed better?
Iron occurs in food in two chemical forms: heme iron and non-heme iron. Heme iron is part of the hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal tissue. Plants contain only non-heme iron. Your body absorbs heme iron much more efficiently than non-heme iron.

5. List the three stages of iron deficiency.
The initial stage of iron deficiency is depletion of iron stores. In the second stage of iron deficiency, there is a decrease in functional or transport iron. The third and most severe stage of iron deficiency is anemia.

6. What are the main functions of selenium?
The best known function of selenium is as a component of glutathione peroxidase, one of a family of antioxidant enzymes. Selenium works with vitamin E and other antioxidants to protect the body from damage by free radicals. Selenium is also important in immune function and has been identified as a component of enzymes involved in the metabolism of iodine and thyroid hormone.

7. What is goiter?
Goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland. Both iodine deficiency and iodine toxicity can cause goiter.

8. How does fluoride prevent tooth decay? Other than water, what sources supply fluoride?
Fluoride promotes deposition of calcium and phosphate in teeth and bones. In addition to water that contains natural or added fluoride, fluoride sources include fluoride supplements, mouthwash, toothpaste, and some beverages.

9. What is chromium’s best understood role in the body? Which foods are good sources of chromium?
Chromium appears to enhance the effects of insulin and helps move glucose into cells.
Good sources of chromium are brewer’s yeast, processed meats, whole grains, green beans, and broccoli.

Chapter 11
1. List the three difference energy systems that your body uses to generate energy during exercise. When is each active during exercise?
ATP-CP energy system
Lactic acid energy system
Oxygen energy system
The ATP-CP energy system is used during the first few seconds to one minute of exercise. The lactic acid energy system is used in short-duration activities and at the end of endurance activities. The oxygen energy system is used during longer-duration activities.

2. What are muscle fibers, and what are the two major types?
Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. The two primary types are slow-twitch (ST) fibers and fast-twitch (FT) fibers. ST fibers can maintain muscular activity for a prolonged time (also known as aerobic endurance). FT fibers have poor aerobic endurance. They perform anaerobically, contract quickly, and tire easily due to their limited endurance.

3. What are the general recommendations for the balance of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in an athlete’s diet?
It is recommended that athletes consume 60 percent of their calories from carbohydrates. Fat intake should be less than 30 percent of calories, with the remainder of energy intake coming from protein.

4. What is carbohydrate loading?
Carbohydrate loading is a process by which athletes manipulate their carbohydrate intake and exercise regimen to maximize glycogen storage in their muscles. Carbo-loading involves a high carbohydrate intake (60 to 70 percent of calories) with a decrease in exercise intensity and duration prior to competition.

5. How do protein recommendations for athletes vary from those for nonathletes?
The adult nonathlete's RDA for protein is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day. This is less than the recommended intake for endurance athletes, which is 1.2 to 1.4 grams per kilogram of body weight per day. The protein recommendation for strength athletes is 1.6 to 1.7 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day.

6. Name three minerals that are of concern for athletes because they may not consume enough.
Calcium, iron, zinc, and copper (any three)

7. What is sports anemia and why does it happen? How does it compare with other anemias?
Sports anemia is a condition of low hemoglobin concentration in the blood that results from an increase in fluid (plasma) volume. Endurance training temporarily increases plasma volume. Because sports anemia is a result of increased plasma volume, it is not considered a true anemia like those caused by lack of iron, folate, or vitamin B12.

8. Define the term ergogenic aid. Is there a clear, research-based answer to whether ergogenic supplements work?
Ergogenic aids are supplements that have been touted to increase athletic strength and/or endurance performance. Many supplements are marketed as ergogenic aids, but most do not have research studies to back up their claims.

9. List the three components of the female athlete triad.
Disordered eating
Premature osteoporosis

Spotlight on Eating Disorders

1. List the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.
Anorexia nervosa:
• Body weight < 85% of expected weight (or BMI ≤ 17.5 kg/m2)
• Intense fear of weight gain
• Inaccurate perception of own body size, weight, or shape
• Amenorrhea (in females after menarche)
Bulimia nervosa:
• Recurrent binge eating (at least two times per week for three months)
• Recurrent purging, excessive exercise, or fasting (at least two times per week for three months)
• Excessive concern about body weight or shape
• Absence of anorexia nervosa
Binge-eating disorder:
• Recurrent binge eating (at least two times per week for six months)
• Marked distress with at least three of the following:
o Eating very rapidly
o Eating until uncomfortably full
o Eating when not hungry
o Eating alone
o Feeling disgusted or guilty after a binge
• No recurrent purging, no excessive exercising, and no fasting
• Absence of anorexia nervosa

2. What are the warning signs of anorexia nervosa?
Loss of a significant amount of weight
Continuing to diet (although thin)
Feeling fat, even after losing weight
Fear of weight gain
Cessation of monthly menstrual periods
Preoccupation with food, calories, nutrition, and/or cooking
Preferring to eat in isolation
Exercising compulsively
Bingeing and purging

3. What is the usual treatment for people with anorexia nervosa, and what do most experts say about their recovery? Treatment usually involves a combination of hospitalization, psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy. The first goal of treatment is to stabilize the patient’s medical condition. Research suggests that with intensive therapy, most patients can achieve normal weight. However, they may struggle all their lives with a moderate to severe preoccupation with food and body weight, poor social relationships, and depression. The earlier the patient begins treatment, the better the prognosis.

4. What is the typical profile of a person with bulimia nervosa?
The average patient with bulimia is an unmarried Caucasian woman in her twenties or thirties with a normal or near-normal body weight. Patients with bulimia are more likely to be sexually active than are those with anorexia and often are involved in destructive relationships with members of the opposite sex. Almost anyone can be affected, however.
People with bulimia nervosa tend to feel very disorganized. They report suffering from depression and low self-esteem. Many were sexually abused as children. Food was often a source of comfort, and eating gradually evolved into a tool for dealing with every unpleasant event, from boredom to major life crises.

5. Describe an eating binge and all the behaviors that constitute purging.
During a binge, individuals with bulimia typically consume massive quantities of highly palatable “forbidden” foods, such as pastry, ice cream, and candy. This gorging takes place over a relatively short time span (an hour or two). Binges may contain up to 10,000 kilocalories. Afterward, feeling physically ill from overindulgence, sufferers use a variety of purging techniques, such as:
Self-induced vomiting
Excessive quantities of laxatives
Strict fasting
Heightened exercise

6. How does binge-eating disorder differ from bulimia?
Recurrent binge eating is common to both binge-eating disorder and bulimia. However, people with binge-eating disorder do not attempt to compensate by purging or other means.

Chapter 12
1. Describe the three stages of fetal growth.
In the first stage of fetal growth, called the blastogenic stage, the fertilized egg rapidly divides and begins to differentiate. During the embryonic stage, the major organ systems form. The fetal stage is the longest stage of development and during this stage the fetus grows dramatically in size.

2. What are some of the physiological changes that occur in a woman during pregnancy?
Physiological changes during pregnancy include an increase in the size of the breast tissue, uterus, and adipose stores; an increase in blood volume; and a reduction in the motility of the gastrointestinal tract.

3. How do the recommended intake values for calories, protein, folate, and iron change for pregnancy?
· Calories: increased by 340 kilocalories per day during the second trimesters and by 450 kilocalories in the third trimester
· Protein: increased from 0.8 grams per kilogram per day to 1.1 grams per kilogram per day during pregnancy
· Folate: increased by 200 micrograms per day (from 400 to 600 micrograms per day)
· Iron: increased by 9 milligrams per day (from 18 to 27 milligrams per day)

4. What contributes to morning sickness and how can a woman minimize its effects?
The fatigue, nausea, and vomiting of pregnancy can be blamed on hormones necessary to nurture the development of the pre-embryo and embryo. Many pregnant women find they experience less "morning sickness" if they eat dry cereal, toast, or crackers about half an hour before getting out of bed. Keeping some food in the stomach throughout the day helps, too. This means eating smaller, more frequent meals, and drinking liquids between meals instead of with food. Avoiding food aromas that trigger nausea is also worth a try.

5. What are some of the benefits of breastfeeding for the infant? For the mother?
Infants who are breastfed have a lower incidence of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and ear infections. Infants also have lower incidence of allergies, diarrhea, and bacterial meningitis. Breastmilk stimulates development of the infant’s immune system.
Breastfeeding stimulates uterine contractions following delivery. This helps to control blood loss and returns the uterus to its normal size more quickly. Breastfeeding may reduce a woman’s risk for ovarian and breast cancer, and for osteoporosis.

6. Is it okay for an infant to experience weight loss immediately after birth? If an infant does lose weight, does it mean he or she is at nutritional risk?
It is normal for infants to lose weight just after being born. In fact, they may lose up to 6 percent of their weight. This does not necessarily mean that an infant is at nutritional risk. Infants typically regain their birth weight within 2 weeks.

7. How much water does a breastfed or formula-fed infant need each day?
Babies need approximately 0.7 liters of water each day in the first six months of life and 0.8 liters per day from age 7 months to 1 year. Breastfed and formula-fed infants do not need supplemental water; the breast milk and properly mixed formula provide enough water for adequate hydration until significant amounts of solid foods have been added to the diet.

8. Is it necessary to give breastfed infants supplements of vitamins and/or minerals? If so, which ones?
All babies should receive a single dose of vitamin K at birth. Breastfed babies need supplemental vitamin D if they are not regularly exposed to sunlight. Vitamin B12 supplements are needed if a breastfeeding mother is a vegan, and fluoride supplements are recommended for all breastfed babies older than 6 months.

9. Describe the process for introducing solid foods into an infant’s diet.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, solid foods (anything other than breast milk or infant formula) are not needed before the age of 6 months. Then new foods should be introduced one at a time to check for any allergies or intolerances. Most parents begin with infant rice cereal, mixed to a thin consistency with water, breast milk, or infant formula. After the infant is eating cereal several times a day, strained fruits and vegetables are introduced one at a time.

10. List the feeding problems that may occur during infancy.
Common feeding-related problems of infancy include colic, nursing bottle tooth decay, iron-deficiency anemia, gastroesophageal reflux, diarrhea, and failure to thrive.

Chapter 13
1. Which vitamins and minerals are most likely to be deficient in a child’s diet?
Iron, possibly zinc, vitamin D, and vitamin E (if parents follow a low-fat diet).

2. Describe the hunger and malnutrition that occur in U.S. households. What federal programs help to address these problems?
Hunger and malnutrition affect a significant number of our nation's children; nearly 12 million children grow up in food-insecure households. To reduce the number of hungry children, programs such as WIC, the National School Lunch Program, and the National School Breakfast Program, and Summer Food Service Program are vital.

3. Identify several chronic nutrition problems that can affect children. How can these problems be avoided?
Chronic nutrition problems that can affect children include obesity, lead toxicity, and early onset of indicators of heart disease. Infants and toddlers should not be given low-fat, high-fiber diets; when children reach the age of 3, dietary changes consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans can gradually be made. Making sure children have regular physical activity and limiting sedentary activity such as television viewing are important factors in reducing obesity and chronic disease risk.

4. What are typical nutritional concerns for adolescents?
As at earlier ages, vitamin A, calcium, and iron, are the nutrients that often are lacking in adolescent diets. Other nutritional concerns include obesity, eating disorders, and substance abuse.

5. What are some of the consequences of a decreased immunity among elders?
Decreased immune function can result in increased risk of respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, pressure sores, and foodborne illness.

6. Compared with a younger adult, does a person older than 65 need more, less, or about the same amount of protein?
Even though older adults may have less lean body mass, protein recommendations (as grams per day) are the same for all healthy adults, regardless of their age. However, because of taste changes and other factors, some individuals find it difficult to meet their protein needs. Some chronically ill people need more protein to maintain nitrogen balance. In addition, trauma, stress, and infection increase protein needs.

7. Why are elders at risk of vitamin D deficiency?
Older people have less ability to produce active vitamin D from sun exposure, they typically are exposed to less sunlight, and they often do not consume enough dairy products, which are good sources of vitamin D.

8. Discuss minerals that may need special attention in assessment of an elder’s nutrition status?
Minerals of concern for elders include calcium, zinc, and magnesium. Calcium status is an important factor in the risk for osteoporosis. Marginal zinc deficiency has been suspected in many elders and may be the result of reduced intake of red meats.

9. What problems might elders encounter with dietary supplements?
Some nutrients in large amounts can be toxic.
Supplements can affect the absorption of other nutrients or interfere with the absorption and metabolism of prescription medication.
Excessive use of vitamin supplements can result in hypervitaminosis (high levels of vitamins in the blood).
Supplements may contain more vitamin A than is needed in an elder’s diet which may lead to liver dysfunction, bone and joint pain, headaches, and other problems.
Large amounts of vitamin C can increase the likelihood of kidney stones and gastric bleeding.

10. What is the role of physical activity in osteoporosis prevention? What nutritional factors are important?
While inactivity increases osteoporosis risk, regular physical activity, especially weight-bearing exercise, helps prevent osteoporosis. An adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium helps slow the rate of bone loss in osteoporosis.

Chapter 14
1. What are the two main ways that pathogenic bacteria can cause foodborne illness?
Some types of pathogenic bacteria can directly infect a person who consumes contaminated food. Other bacteria may produce a toxin that can cause foodborne illness.

2. Why shouldn’t your 97-year-old great-grandmother drink homemade eggnog made from raw eggs?
Because raw eggs could harbor pathogenic Salmonella bacteria, everyone should avoid them. Especially vulnerable are people with decreased immune function, such as the elderly, small children, or someone with an immune-compromising disease.

3. How can you limit your intake of pesticides, according to the Consumers Union?
The following suggestions by the Consumers Union will help you limit your intake of pesticides: wash and peel produce, and eat a wide variety of fruits and vegetables.

4. List four nationally occurring toxins.
· aflatoxin, a toxin produced by fungi found on nuts and corn
· ciguatera, a toxin found in saltwater fish
· methyl mercury, also found in fish
· toxins found in poisonous mushrooms
· solanine, found in potatoes

5. What does “HACCP” stand for and what is its purpose?
HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point. It is a process used by both the government and industry to prevent food contamination by identifying areas in food production where contamination can occur.

6. What are some ways to keep food safe at home?
When trying to keep a kitchen safe from pathogenic microorganisms, you should
· Make sure hands and kitchen surfaces are thoroughly clean.
· Keep raw meats and poultry separate from other raw foods to avoid cross-contamination.
· Use proper temperatures while cooking.
· Chill food properly.

7. List the most common food preservation techniques.
· Salting
· Fermenting
· Canning
· Freezing
· Pasteurization
· Irradiation

8. What are scientists’ two major concerns about genetically engineered crops?
The main concerns scientists have regarding genetically engineered crops are (1) the possibilities of producing new allergens, since engineered crops may have a new protein added to them, and (2) the environmental effects of engineered crops.

Chapter 15
1. What is the difference between food insecurity and hunger?
Food insecurity is the worry that one does not have the resources to obtain adequate food. Hunger is the physical sensation of unease or pain caused by a lack of food. Food insecurity can exist with or without hunger.

2. What is food security?
Food security is the guarantee of access to sufficient amounts of food for good health.

3. What groups are most at risk for food insecurity in the United States?
Working poor
People in rural, isolated areas

4. List some of the organizations and programs fighting hunger and food insecurity in the United States.
· Food Stamp Program
· National School Lunch Program
· School Breakfast Program
· Child and Adult Care Food Program
· The Food Research and Action Center (FRAC)
· Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

5. List four causes of malnutrition worldwide.
Any four of the following:
Population growth
Infection and disease
Political sanctions
Natural disasters
Inequitable food distribution

6. List four common nutritional deficiencies worldwide.
· Vitamin A
· Iodine
· Iron
· Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)

7. What populations are at increased risk of nutritional deficiencies, and why?
Children, women, the elderly, and refugees are at increased risk of malnutrition due to lack of education and employment, sex discrimination, and dependency on others.

What to do if the pregnancy test is positive? Your options are: continuing with the pregnancy and keeping the baby having an abortion continuing with the pregnancy and having the baby adopted