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CHAPTER 15 LECTURE NOTES: PERSONALITY - what type of personality are you quiz


➢ Personality: individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

o Four basic perspectives:

1. Psychoanalytic

2. Trait

3. Humanistic

4. Social-cognitive

➢ 5. Freud's theory: proposes that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality

Psychoanalytic Perspective


➢ Technique of treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret 6. unconscious tensions

➢ Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality sought to explain what he observed during psychoanalysis

➢ 7. Free Association

o method of exploring the unconscious

o person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

➢ 8. Unconscious

o Freud’s theory: a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories

o Current theory: information processing of which we are unaware

➢ 9. Preconscious: information that is not conscious, but is readily retrievable into conscious awareness

Personality Structure

➢ 10. ID: reservoir of unconscious psychic energy

o strives to satisfy 11. basic drives … sexual and aggressive

o operates on the 12. pleasure principle; demanding immediate gratification

➢ 13. SUPEREGO: part of personality that represents 14. internalized ideals

o provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations

➢ 15. EGO: largely conscious, 16. "executive" part of personality

o 17. mediates among the demands of the id, superego and ego

o operates on the 18. reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

Personality Development

➢ Psychosexual Stages: childhood stages of development during which the pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

➢ 19. Oedipus Complex: boy's sexual desires towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the “rival” father

➢ 20. Electra Complex: came later…. girl's sexual desires towards her father and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the “rival” mother

➢ Freud's Psychosexual Stages

|21. ORAL (0-18 months) |Pleasure center on the mouth … sucking, biting, chewing |
|22. ANAL (18-36 months) |Pleasure focuses on bowel & bladder elimination; coping with demands for control |
|23. PHALLIC (3-6 years) |Pleasure zone is genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings |
|24. LATENCY (6 to puberty) |Dormant sexual feelings |
|25. GENITAL (puberty & on …) |Maturation of sexual interests |

➢ 26. Identification: the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

➢ 27. Gender Identity: one's sense of being male or female

➢ 28. Fixation: a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved … nail biters or gum chewers may be fixated in the Oral Stage.


➢ 29. Defense Mechanisms: the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

o 30. Repression: basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

o 31. Regression: individual retreats when faced with anxiety, to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated … college freshman goes home for Thanksgiving, has mom wash clothes, fix favorite dinner, tuck him in at night, etc……

o 32. Reaction Formation: the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.

o 33. Projection: people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

o 34. Rationalization: offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions

o 35. Displacement: shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person .... when angry with your parents, you kick a hole in your bedroom door


✓ 36. Alfred Adler: importance of childhood social tension

✓ 37. Karen Horney: sought to balance Freud's masculine biases

✓ 38. Carl Jung: emphasizes collective unconscious … concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history


❖ 39. Projective Test: personality test, such as the Rorschach or T AT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

❖ 40. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

❖ 41. Rorschach Inkblot Test: most widely used projective test, uses a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.


❖ Trait: characteristic pattern of behavior; a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports

❖ 42. Personality Inventory: questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits

Big Five Personality Factors

|43. EMOTIONAL STABILITY |Calm versus anxious |
| |Secure versus insecure |
| |Self-satisfied versus self-pitying |
|44. EXTRAVERSION |Sociable versus retiring |
| |Fun-loving versus sober |
| |Affectionate versus reserved |
|45. OPENNESS |Imaginative versus practical |
| |Preference for variety versus preference for routine |
| |Independent versus conforming |
|46. AGREEABLE |Soft-hearted versus ruthless |
| |Trusting versus suspicious |
| |Helpful versus uncooperative |
|47. CONSCIENTIOUSNESS |Organized versus disorganized |
| |Careful versus careless |
| |Disciplined versus impulsive |

➢ 48. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

❖ The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests

o Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use)

o Now used for many other screening purposes

o 49. Empirically Derived Test: test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups … similar to MMPI


➢ Situational influences on behavior are important to consider

➢ People can fake 49.5 desirable responses on self-report measures of personality

➢ Averaging behavior across situations seems to indicate that people do have distinct personality traits


➢ 50. Carl Rogers (1902-1987): focused on growth and fulfillment of individuals

▪ Requires three conditions:

• 51. Genuineness

• 52. Acceptance- unconditional positive regard: an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

• 53. Empathy

o Self- 54. Concept: all of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question "Who am I"?"

o Self- 55. Esteem: one's feelings of high or low self-worth

o Self- 56. Serving Bias: a readiness to perceive oneself favorably

o 57. Individualism: giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications

o 58. Collectivism: giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.

Contrasts Between Individualism and Collectivism

|SELF |59. Independent |59. Interdependent |
| |(identity from individual traits) |(identity from belongings) |
|LIFE TASK |Discover and express one’s uniqueness |Maintain connections |
|WHAT MATTERS |60. Me, personal achievement and fulfillment; rights|We, group goals and solidarity; social |
| |and liberties |responsibilities and relationships |
|COPING METHOD |61. Change reality |62. Accommodate reality |
|MORALITY |Defined by individuals (self-based) |Defined by 63. social networks |
| | |(duty-based) |
|RELATIONSHIPS |Many, often temporary or casual; |Few, close and enduring; |
| |64. confrontation acceptable |65. harmony valued |
|ATTRIBUTING BEHAVIOR |Behavior reflects 66. one’s personality and |Behavior reflects 67. social norm and |
| |attitudes |roles |


➢ Concepts like self-actualization are 68. vague

➢ Emphasis on self may promote self-indulgence and lack of concern for others.

Theory does not address reality of human capacity for 69. evil

➢ Theory has impacted popular ideas on child rearing, education, management, etc.


➢ Reciprocal Determinism: 70. interacting influences between personality and environmental factors

➢ Personal Control: 71. our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless

➢ External Locus of Control: 72. perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate

➢ Internal Locus of Control: 73. the perception that one controls one's own fate

➢ Learned Helplessness: 74. hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events


➢ Built from research on learning and cognition

➢ Fails to consider 75. unconscious motives and individual disposition
Today, 76. cognitive-behavioral theory is perhaps predominant psychological approach to explaining human behavior

What are the 16 personality? These 16 personality types are divided into four categories, analysts, diplomats, sentinels, and explorers. Each of the four letters in a Myers–Briggs personality type code stands for a preference in your style of thinking, behaviour, and attitude towards life and people. INTJs are introverts who are visionary and strategic thinkers.